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Radar Systems Analysis and Design Using MATLAB Third Edition, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Developed from the author’s graduate-level courses, the first edition of this book filled the need for a comprehensive, self-contained, and hands-on treatment of radar systems analysis and design. It quickly became a bestseller and was widely adopted by many professors. The second edition built on this successful format by rearranging and updating topics and code.

Reorganized, expanded, and updated, Radar Systems Analysis and Design Using MATLAB®, Third Edition continues to help graduate students and engineers understand the many issues involved in radar systems design and analysis. Each chapter includes the mathematical and analytical coverage necessary for obtaining a solid understanding of radar theory. Additionally, MATLAB functions/programs in each chapter further enhance comprehension of the theory and provide a source for establishing radar system design requirements.

Incorporating feedback from professors and practicing engineers, the third edition of this bestselling text reflects the state of the art in the field and restructures the material to be more convenient for course use. It includes several new topics and many new end-of-chapter problems. This edition also takes advantage of the new features in the latest version of MATLAB. Updated MATLAB code is available for download on the book’s CRC Press web page.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
  2. Book Dedication
  3. Preface
  4. PART I: Radar Principles
    1. Chapter 1: Definitions and Nomenclature
      1. 1.1. Radar Systems Classifications and Bands
      2. 1.2. Pulsed and Continuous Wave (CW) Radars
      3. 1.3. Range
      4. 1.4. Range Resolution
      5. 1.5. Doppler Frequency
      6. 1.6. Coherence
      7. 1.7. Decibel Arithmetic
      8. Appendix 1-A: Chapter 1 MATLAB Code Listings
        1. MATLAB Function “pulse_train.m” Listing
        2. MATLAB Function “range_resolution.m” Listing
        3. MATLAB Function “doppler_freq.m” Listing
      1. Figure 1.1
      2. Figure 1.2
      3. Figure 1.3
      4. Figure 1.4
      5. Figure 1.5
      6. Figure 1.6
      7. Figure 1.7
      8. Figure 1.8
      9. Figure 1.9
      10. Figure 1.10
      11. Figure 1.11
      12. Figure 1.12
      13. Figure 1.13
      14. Figure 1.14
      15. Figure 1.15
      16. Figure 1.16
      17. Figure 1.17
      18. Figure 1.18
      19. Figure 1.19
      1. Table 1.1
    2. Chapter 2: Basic Pulsed and Continuous Wave (CW) Radar Operations
      1. 2.1. The Radar Range Equation
          1. MATLAB Function “radar_eq.m”
      2. 2.2. Low PRF Radar Equation
          1. MATLAB Function “lprf_req.m”
      3. 2.3. High PRF Radar Equation
      4. 2.4. Surveillance Radar Equation
          1. MATLAB Function “power_aperture.m”
      5. 2.5. Radar Equation with Jamming
        1. 2.5.1. Self-Screening Jammers (SSJ)
          1. MATLAB Function “ssj_req.m”
        2. 2.5.2. Burn-Through Range
          1. MATLAB Function “sir.m”
          2. MATLAB Function “burn_thru.m”
        3. 2.5.3. Stand-Off Jammers (SOJ)
          1. MATLAB Function “soj_req.m”
      6. 2.6. Range Reduction Factor
      7. 2.7. Bistatic Radar Equation
      8. 2.8. Radar Losses
        1. 2.8.1. Transmit and Receive Losses
        2. 2.8.2. Antenna Pattern Loss and Scan Loss
        3. 2.8.3. Atmospheric Loss
        4. 2.8.4. Collapsing Loss
        5. 2.8.5. Processing Loss
      9. 2.9. Noise Figure
      10. 2.10. Continuous Wave (CW) Radars
        1. 2.10.1 CW Radar Equation
        2. 2.10.2 Frequency Modulation
        3. 2.10.3 Linear Frequency Modulated CW Radar
        4. 2.10.4 Multiple Frequency CW Radar
      11. 2.11. MATLAB Program “range_calc.m”
      12. Appendix 2-A: Chapter 2 MATLAB Code Listings
        1. MATLAB Function “radar_eq.m” Listing
        2. MATLAB Program “Fig2_1.m” Listing
        3. MATLAB Function “lprf_req.m” Listing
        4. MATLAB Program “Fig2_2.m” Listing
        5. MATLAB Function “hprf_req.m” Listing
        6. MATLAB Program “Fig2_3.m” Listing
        7. MATLAB Function “power_aperture.m” Listing
        8. MATLAB Program “Fig2_6.m” Listing
        9. MATLAB Program “ssj_req.m” Listing
        10. MATLAB Program “Fig2_7b.m” Listing
        11. MATLAB Function “sir.m” Listing
        12. MATLAB Program “Fig2_8.m” Listing
        13. MATLAB Function “burn_thru.m” Listing
        14. MATLAB Program “Fig2_9.m” Listing
        15. MATLAB Function “soj_req.m” Listing
        16. MATLAB Program “Fig2_10.m” Listing
        17. MATLAB Function “range_calc.m” Listing
      1. Figure 2.1a
      2. Figure 2.1b
      3. Figure 2.2a
      4. Figure 2.2b
      5. Figure 2.3
      6. Figure 2.4
      7. Figure 2.5
      8. Figure 2.6a
      9. Figure 2.6b
      10. Figure 2.7a
      11. Figure 2.7b
      12. Figure 2.8
      13. Figure 2.9
      14. Figure 2.10
      15. Figure 2.11
      16. Figure 2.12
      17. Figure 2.13
      18. Figure 2.14
      19. Figure 2.15
      20. Figure 2.16
      21. Figure 2.17
      22. Figure 2.18
      23. Figure 2.19
      24. Figure 2.20
      25. Figure 2.21
      26. Figure 2.22
      27. Figure 2.23
      28. Figure 2.24
      29. Figure 2.25
      30. Figure P.2.34
    3. PART II: Radar Signals and Signal Processing
      1. Chapter 3: Linear Systems and Complex Signal Representation
        1. 3.1. Signal Classifications
        2. 3.2. The Fourier Transform
        3. 3.3. Systems Classification
          1. 3.3.1. Linear and Nonlinear Systems
          2. 3.3.2. Time Invariant and Time Varying Systems
          3. 3.3.3. Stable and Nonstable Systems
          4. 3.3.4. Causal and Noncausal Systems
        4. 3.4. Signal Representation Using the Fourier Series
        5. 3.5. Convolution and Correlation Integrals
          1. 3.5.1. Energy and Power Spectrum Densities
        6. 3.6. Bandpass Signals
          1. 3.6.1. The Analytic Signal (Pre-Envelope)
          2. 3.6.2. Pre-Envelope and Complex Envelope of Bandpass Signals
        7. 3.7. Spectra of a Few Common Radar Signals
          1. 3.7.1. Continuous Wave Signal
          2. 3.7.2. Finite Duration Pulse Signal
          3. 3.7.3. Periodic Pulse Signal
          4. 3.7.4. Finite Duration Pulse Train Signal
          5. 3.7.5. Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM) Signal
        8. 3.8. Signal Bandwidth and Duration
          1. 3.8.1. Effective Bandwidth and Duration Calculation
            1. Single Pulse
            2. Finite Duration Pulse Train Signal
            3. LFM Signal
        9. 3.9. Discrete Time Systems and Signals
          1. 3.9.1. Sampling Theorem
            1. Lowpass Sampling Theorem
            2. Bandpass Sampling Theorem
          2. 3.9.2. The Z-Transform
          3. 3.9.3. The Discrete Fourier Transform
          4. 3.9.4. Discrete Power Spectrum
          5. 3.9.5. Windowing Techniques
          6. 3.9.6. Decimation and Interpolation
            1. Decimation
            2. Interpolation
        10. Appendix 3-A: Chapter 3 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Program “Fig3_6.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Program “Fig3_8.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Program “Fig3_10_13.m”
        11. Appendix 3-B: Fourier Transform Pairs
        12. Appendix 3-C: Z-Transform Pairs
      1. Figure 3.1
      2. Figure 3.2
      3. Figure 3.3
      4. Figure 3.4
      5. Figure 3.5
      6. Figure 3.6
      7. Figure 3.7
      8. Figure 3.8a
      9. Figure 3.8b
      10. Figure 3.8c
      11. Figure 3.9
      12. Figure 3.10
      13. Figure 3.11
      14. Figure 3.12
      15. Figure 3.13
      16. Figure 3.14
      17. Figure 3.15
      1. Table 3.1
      2. Table 3.2
    4. Chapter 4: The Matched Filter Radar Receiver
      1. 4.1. The Matched Filter SNR
        1. 4.1.1. White Noise Case
        2. 4.1.2. The Replica
      2. 4.2. General Formula for the Output of the Matched Filter
        1. 4.2.1. Stationary Target Case
        2. 4.2.2. Moving Target Case
      3. 4.3. Waveform Resolution and Ambiguity
        1. 4.3.1. Range Resolution
        2. 4.3.2. Doppler Resolution
        3. 4.3.3. Combined Range and Doppler Resolution
      4. 4.4. Range and Doppler Uncertainty
        1. 4.4.1. Range Uncertainty
        2. 4.4.2. Doppler Uncertainty
        3. 4.4.3. Range-Doppler Coupling
          1. Range Error Estimate
          2. Doppler Error Estimate
        4. 4.4.4. Range-Doppler Coupling in LFM Signals
      5. 4.5. Target Parameter Estimation
        1. 4.5.1. What Is an Estimator?
        2. 4.5.2. Amplitude Estimation
        3. 4.5.3. Phase Estimation
    1. Figure 4.1
  5. Chapter 5: Ambiguity Function - Analog Waveforms
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Examples of the Ambiguity Function
      1. 5.2.1. Single Pulse Ambiguity Function
        1. MATLAB Function “single_pulse_ambg.m”
      2. 5.2.2. LFM Ambiguity Function
        1. MATLAB Function “lfm_ambg.m” Listing
      3. 5.2.3. Coherent Pulse Train Ambiguity Function
        1. MATLAB Function “tarin_ambg.m”
      4. 5.2.4. Pulse Train Ambiguity Function with LFM
        1. MATLAB Function “train_ambg_lfm.m”
    3. 5.3. Stepped Frequency Waveforms
    4. 5.4. Nonlinear FM
      1. 5.4.1. The Concept of Stationary Phase
      2. 5.4.2. Frequency Modulated Waveform Spectrum Shaping
    5. 5.5. Ambiguity Diagram Contours
    6. 5.6. Interpretation of Range-Doppler Coupling in LFM Signals
    7. Appendix 5-A: Chapter 5 MATLAB Code Listings
        1. MATLAB Function “single_pulse_ambg.m” Listing
        2. MATLAB Program “Fig5_2.m” Listing
        3. MATLAB Program “Fig5_4.m” Listing
        4. MATLAB Function “lfm_ambg.m” Listing
        5. MATLAB Program “Fig5_5.m” Listing
        6. MATLAB Program “Fig5_6.m” Listing
        7. MATLAB Function “train_ambg.m” Listing
        8. MATLAB Program “Fig5_8.m” Listing
        9. MATLAB Program “Fig5_9.m” Listing
        10. MATLAB Function “train_ambg_lfm.m” Listing
        11. MATLAB Program “Fig5_10.m” Listing
        12. MATLAB Program “Fig5_15.m” Listing
    1. Figure 5.1
    2. Figure 5.2a
    3. Figure 5.2b
    4. Figure 5.3
    5. Figure 5.4
    6. Figure 5.5a
    7. Figure 5.5b
    8. Figure 5.6
    9. Figure 5.7
    10. Figure 5.8a
    11. Figure 5.8b
    12. Figure 5.8c
    13. Figure 5.8d
    14. Figure 5.9
    15. Figure 5.10a
    16. Figure 5.10b
    17. Figure 5.11a
    18. Figure 5.11b
    19. Figure 5.12
    20. Figure 5.13
    21. Figure 5.14
    22. Figure 5.15
    23. Figure 5.16
    24. Figure 5.17
  6. Chapter 6: Ambiguity Function - Discrete Coded Waveforms
    1. 6.1. Discrete Code Signal Representation
    2. 6.2. Pulse-Train Codes
    3. 6.3. Phase Coding
      1. 6.3.1. Binary Phase Codes
        1. Barker Code
        2. Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) Codes
        3. Linear Shift Register Generators
        4. Maximal Length Sequence Characteristic Polynomial
      2. 6.3.2. Polyphase Codes
        1. Frank Codes
    4. 6.4. Frequency Codes
      1. 6.4.1. Costas Codes
    5. 6.5. Ambiguity Plots for Discrete Coded Waveforms
    6. Appendix 6-A: Chapter 6 MATLAB Code Listings
      1. MATLAB Program “Fig6_2.m” Listing
      2. MATLAB Function “plot_figures_chap6.m” Listing
      3. MATLAB Program “Fig6_3.m” Listing
      4. MATLAB Program “Fig6_8_10.m” Listing
      5. MATLAB Program “Fig6_15_16.m” Listing
      6. MATLAB Program “Fig6_17.m” Listing
      7. MATLAB Function “ambiguity_code.m” Listing
    1. Figure 6.1
    2. Figure 6.2a
    3. Figure 6.2b
    4. Figure 6.2c
    5. Figure 6.3a
    6. Figure 6.3b
    7. Figure 6.4
    8. Figure 6.5
    9. Figure 6.6
    10. Figure 6.7
    11. Figure 6.8a
    12. Figure 6.8b
    13. Figure 6.8c
    14. Figure 6.9a
    15. Figure 6.9b
    16. Figure 6.9c
    17. Figure 6.10a
    18. Figure 6.10b
    19. Figure 6.10c
    20. Figure 6.11
    21. Figure 6.12
    22. Figure 6.13
    23. Figure 6.14
    24. Figure 6.15a
    25. Figure 6.15b
    26. Figure 6.15c
    27. Figure 6.16a
    28. Figure 6.16b
    29. Figure 6.16c
    30. Figure 6.17a
    31. Figure 6.17b
    32. Figure 6.17c
    33. Figure 6.18
    34. Figure 6.19
    1. Table 6.1
  7. Chapter 7: Pulse Compression
    1. 7.1. Time-Bandwidth Product
    2. 7.2. Radar Equation with Pulse Compression
    3. 7.3. Basic Principle of Pulse Compression
    4. 7.4. Correlation Processor
        1. MATLAB Function “matched_filter.m”
    5. 7.5. Stretch Processor
      1. 7.5.1. Single LFM Pulse
        1. MATLAB Function “stretch.m”
      2. 7.5.2. Stepped Frequency Waveforms
        1. Range Resolution and Range Ambiguity in SFW
        2. MATLAB Function “SFW.m”
      3. 7.5.3. Effect of Target Velocity
    6. Appendix 7-A: Chapter 7 MATLAB Code Listings
        1. MATLAB Program “Fig7_3.m” Listing
        2. MATLAB Function “matched_filter.m” Listing
        3. MATLAB Function “power_integer_2.m” Listing
        4. MATLAB Function “stretch.m” Listing
        5. MATLAB Function “SFW.m”
        6. MATLAB Program “Fig7_20.m”
    1. Figure 7.1
    2. Figure 7.2
    3. Figure 7.3a
    4. Figure 7.3b
    5. Figure 7.4
    6. Figure 7.5
    7. Figure 7.6a
    8. Figure 7.6b
    9. Figure 7.7a
    10. Figure 7.7b
    11. Figure 7.7c
    12. Figure 7.8
    13. Figure 7.9
    14. Figure 7.10a
    15. Figure 7.10b
    16. Figure 7.11a
    17. Figure 7.11b
    18. Figure 7.12
    19. Figure 7.13
    20. Figure 7.14
    21. Figure 7.15
    22. Figure 7.16
    23. Figure 7.17
    24. Figure 7.18
    25. Figure 7.19
    26. Figure 7.20
  8. PART III: Special Radar Considerations
    1. Chapter 8: Radar Wave Propagation
      1. 8.1. The Earth's Impact on the Radar Equation
      2. 8.2. Earth's Atmosphere
      3. 8.3. Atmospheric Models
        1. 8.3.1. Index of Refraction in the Troposphere
        2. 8.3.2. Index of Refraction in the Ionosphere
        3. 8.3.3. Mathematical Model for Computing Refraction
        4. 8.3.4. Stratified Atmospheric Refraction Model
          1. MATLAB Function “refraction.m”
      4. 8.4. Four-Third Earth Model
        1. 8.4.1. Target Height Equation
      5. 8.5. Ground Reflection
        1. 8.5.1. Smooth Surface Reflection Coefficient
          1. MATLAB Function “ref_coef.m”
        2. 8.5.2. Divergence
          1. MATLAB Function “divergence.m”
        3. 8.5.3. Rough Surface Reflection
          1. MATLAB Function “surf_rough.m”
        4. 8.5.4. Total Reflection Coefficient
      6. 8.6. The Pattern Propagation Factor
        1. 8.6.1. Flat Earth
        2. 8.6.2. Spherical Earth
        3. 8.6.3. MATLAB Program “multipath.m”
      7. 8.7. Diffraction
          1. MATLAB Function “diffraction.m”
      8. 8.8. Atmospheric Attenuation
        1. 8.8.1. Atmospheric Absorption
          1. MATLAB Function “atmo_absorp.m”
        2. 8.8.2. Atmospheric Attenuation Plots
          1. MATLAB Function “absorption_range.m”
          2. MATLAB Function “atmospheric_attn.m”
      9. 8.9. Attenuation Due to Precipitation
      10. Appendix 8-A: Chapter 8 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Function “refraction.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Program “Fig8_7.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Function “ref_coef.m” Listing
          4. MATLAB Program “Fig8_11_12.m” Listing
          5. MATLAB Program “Fig8_13_14.m” Listing
          6. MATLAB Function “divergence.m” Listing
          7. MATLAB Function “surf_rough.m” Listing
          8. MATLAB Program “Fig8_17.m” Listing
          9. MATLAB Program “multipath.m” Listing
          10. MATLAB Program “diffraction.m” Listing
          11. MATLAB Program “airyzo1.m” Listing
          12. MATLAB Program “Fig8_29.m” Listing
          13. MATLAB Program “Fig8_30.m” Listing
          14. MATLAB Function “atmo_absorp.m” Listing
          15. MATLAB Program “Fig8_31.m” Listing
          16. MATLAB Function “absorption_range.m” Listing
          17. MATLAB Program “Fig8_33.m” Listing
          18. MATLAB Function “atmospheric_attn.m” Listing
          19. MATLAB Program “Fig_34_35.m” Listing
          20. MATLAB Program “Fig8_36.m” Listing
          21. MATLAB Program “Fig8_37.m” Listing
      1. Figure 8.1
      2. Figure 8.2
      3. Figure 8.3
      4. Figure 8.4
      5. Figure 8.5
      6. Figure 8.6
      7. Figure 8.7
      8. Figure 8.8
      9. Figure 8.9
      10. Figure 8.10
      11. Figure 8.11
      12. Figure 8.12
      13. Figure 8.13
      14. Figure 8.14
      15. Figure 8.15
      16. Figure 8.16
      17. Figure 8.17
      18. Figure 8.18
      19. Figure 8.19
      20. Figure 8.20
      21. Figure 8.21
      22. Figure 8.22
      23. Figure 8.23
      24. Figure 8.24
      25. Figure 8.25
      26. Figure 8.26
      27. Figure 8.27
      28. Figure 8.28
      29. Figure 8.29
      30. Figure 8.30
      31. Figure 8.31
      32. Figure 8.32
      33. Figure 8.33
      34. Figure 8.34
      35. Figure 8.35
      36. Figure 8.36
      37. Figure 8.37
      1. Table 8.1
      2. Table 8.2
      3. Table 8.3
      4. Table 8.4
      5. Table 8.5
      6. Table 8.6
    2. Chapter 9: Radar Clutter
      1. 9.1. Clutter Definition
      2. 9.2. Surface Clutter
        1. 9.2.1. Radar Equation for Area Clutter - Airborne Radar
      3. 9.3. Volume Clutter
        1. 9.3.1. Radar Equation for Volume Clutter
      4. 9.4. Surface Clutter RCS
        1. 9.4.1. Single Pulse - Low PRF Case
          1. MATLAB Function “clutter_rcs.m”
        2. 9.4.2. High PRF Case
      5. 9.5. Clutter Components
      6. 9.6. Clutter Backscatter Coefficient Statistical Models
        1. 9.6.1. Surface Clutter Case
        2. 9.6.2. Volume Clutter Case
      7. Appendix 9-A: Chapter 9 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Function “clutter_rcs.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Program “Fig9_9_10.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Program “Fig9_12_13.m” Listing
          4. MATLAB Program “Fig9_14.m” Listing
      1. Figure 9.1
      2. Figure 9.2
      3. Figure 9.3
      4. Figure 9.4
      5. Figure 9.5
      6. Figure 9.6
      7. Figure 9.7
      8. Figure 9.8
      9. Figure 9.9a
      10. Figure 9.9b
      11. Figure 9.10a
      12. Figure 9.10b
      13. Figure 9.11
      14. Figure 9.12
      15. Figure 9.13
      16. Figure 9.14
    3. Chapter 10: Moving Target Indicator (MTI) and Pulsed Doppler Radars
      1. 10.1. Clutter Power Spectrum Density
      2. 10.2. Concept of a Moving Target Indicator (MTI)
        1. 10.2.1. Single Delay Line Canceler
          1. MATLAB Function “single_canceler.m”
        2. 10.2.2. Double Delay Line Canceler
          1. MATLAB Function “double_canceler.m”
        3. 10.2.3. Delay Lines with Feedback (Recursive Filters)
      3. 10.3. PRF Staggering
      4. 10.4. MTI Improvement Factor
        1. 10.4.1. Two-Pulse MTI Case
        2. 10.4.2. The General Case
      5. 10.5. Subclutter Visibility (SCV)
      6. 10.6. Delay Line Cancelers with Optimal Weights
      7. 10.7. Pulsed Doppler Radars
        1. 10.7.1. Pulse Doppler Radar Signal Processing
        2. 10.7.2. Resolving Range Ambiguities
        3. 10.7.3. Resolving Doppler Ambiguity
      8. 10.8. Phase Noise
      9. Appendix 10-A: Chapter 10 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Function “single_canceler.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Function “double_canceler.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Program “Fig10_8.m” Listing
          4. MATLAB Program “Fig10_9.m” Listing
          5. MATLAB Program “Fig10_10.m” Listing
          6. MATLAB Program “Fig10_23.m” Listing
          7. MATLAB Program “Fig10_24.m” Listing
          8. MATLAB Program “Fig10_25.m” Listing
      1. Figure 10.1
      2. Figure 10.2
      3. Figure 10.3
      4. Figure 10.4
      5. Figure 10.5
      6. Figure 10.6
      7. Figure 10.7
      8. Figure 10.8
      9. Figure 10.9
      10. Figure 10.10
      11. Figure 10.11
      12. Figure 10.12
      13. Figure 10.13
      14. Figure 10.14
      15. Figure 10.15
      16. Figure 10.16
      17. Figure 10.17
      18. Figure 10.18
      19. Figure 10.19
      20. Figure 10.20
      21. Figure 10.21
      22. Figure 10.22
      23. Figure 10.23
      24. Figure 10.24
      25. Figure 10.25
      1. Table 10.1
    4. PART IV: Radar Detection
      1. Chapter 11: Random Variables and Random Processes
        1. 11.1. Random Variables
        2. 11.2. Multivariate Gaussian Random Vector
          1. 11.2.1. Complex Multivariate Gaussian Random Vector
        3. 11.3. Rayleigh Random Variables
        4. 11.4. The Chi-Square Random Variables
          1. 11.4.1. Central Chi-Square Random Variable with N Degrees of Freedom
          2. 11.4.2. Non-Central Chi-Square Random Variable with N Degrees of Freedom
        5. 11.5. Random Processes
        6. 11.6. The Gaussian Random Process
          1. 11.6.1. Lowpass Gaussian Random Processes
          2. 11.6.2. Bandpass Gaussian Random Processes
          3. 11.6.3. The Envelope of a Bandpass Gaussian Process
    5. Chapter 12: Single Pulse Detection
      1. 12.1. Single Pulse with Known Parameters
      2. 12.2. Single Pulse with Known Amplitude and Unknown Phase
          1. MATALAB Function “que_funcm”
        1. 12.2.1. Probability of False Alarm
        2. 12.2.2. Probability of Detection
          1. MATLAB Function “marcumsq.m”
      3. Appendix 12-A: Chapter 12 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Function “que_func.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Function “marcumsq.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Program “Fig12_5.m” Listing
      1. Figure 12.1
      2. Figure 12.2
      3. Figure 12.3
      4. Figure 12.4
      5. Figure 12.5
      1. Table 12.1
    6. Chapter 13: Detection of Fluctuating Targets
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Pulse Integration
        1. 13.2.1. Coherent Integration
        2. 13.2.2. Noncoherent Integration
        3. 13.2.3. Improvement Factor and Integration Loss
          1. MATLAB Function “impmrov_factm”
      3. 13.3. Target Fluctuation: The Chi-Square Family of Targets
      4. 13.4. Probability of False Alarm Formulation for a Square Law Detector
          1. MATLAB Function “thresholdm”
        1. 13.4.1. Square Law Detection
      5. 13.5. Probability of Detection Calculation
        1. 13.5.1. Detection of Swerling 0 (Swerling V) Targets
          1. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling5.m”
        2. 13.5.2. Detection of Swerling I Targets
          1. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling1.m”
        3. 13.5.3. Detection of Swerling II Targets
          1. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling2.m”
        4. 13.5.4. Detection of Swerling III Targets
          1. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling3.m”
        5. 13.5.5. Detection of Swerling IV Targets
          1. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling4.m”
      6. 13.6. Computation of the Fluctuation Loss
          1. MATLAB Function “fluct.m”
      7. 13.7. Cumulative Probability of Detection
      8. 13.8. Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR)
        1. 13.8.1. Cell-Averaging CFAR (Single Pulse)
        2. 13.8.2. Cell-Averaging CFAR with Noncoherent Integration
      9. 13.9. M-out-of-N Detection
      10. 13.10. The Radar Equation Revisited
      11. Appendix 13-A: The Incomplete Gamma Function
          1. The Gamma Function
          2. The Incomplete Gamma Function
      12. Appendix 13-B: Chapter 13 MATLAB Code Listings
          1. MATLAB Function “improv_fac.m” Listing
          2. MATLAB Program “Fig13_2.m” Listing
          3. MATLAB Function “threshold.m” Listing
          4. MATLAB Program “Fig13_4.m” Listing
          5. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling5.m” Listing
          6. MATLAB Program “Fig13_5.m” Listing
          7. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling1.m” Listing
          8. MATLAB Program “Fig13_6.m” Listing
          9. MATLAB Program “Fig13_7.m” Listing
          10. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling2.m” Listing
          11. MATLAB Program “Fig13_8.m” Listing
          12. MATLAB Program “Fig13_9.m” Listing
          13. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling3.m” Listing
          14. MATLAB Program “Fig13_10.m” Listing
          15. MATLAB Program “Fig13_11.m” Listing
          16. MATLAB Function “pd_swerling4.m” Listing
          17. MATLAB Program “Fig13_12.m” Listing
          18. MATLAB Function “fluct_loss.m” Listing
          19. MATLAB Program “Fig13_13.m” Listing
          20. MATLAB Program “Fig13A_1.m” Listing
      1. Figure 13.1
      2. Figure 13.2
      3. Figure 13.3
      4. Figure 13.4
      5. Figure 13.5
      6. Figure 13.6
      7. Figure 13.7
      8. Figure 13.8
      9. Figure 13.9
      10. Figure 13.10
      11. Figure 13.11
      12. Figure 13.12
      13. Figure 13.13
      14. Figure 13.14
      15. Figure 13.15
      16. Figure 13.16
      17. Figure 13.17
      18. Figure 13A.1
      1. Table 13.1
    7. PART V: Radar Special Topics
      1. Chapter 14: Radar Cross Section (RCS)
        1. 14.1. RCS Definition
        2. 14.2. RCS Dependency on Aspect Angle and Frequency
          1. MATLAB Function “rcs_aspect.m”
          2. MATLAB Function “rcs_frequency.m”
        3. 14.3. RCS Dependency on Polarization
          1. 14.3.1. Normalized Electric Field
          2. 14.3.2. Polarization
          3. 14.3.3. Target Scattering Matrix
        4. 14.4. RCS of Simple Objects
          1. 14.4.1. Sphere
          2. 14.4.2. Ellipsoid
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_ellipsoid.m”
          3. 14.4.3. Circular Flat Plate
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_circ_plate.m”
          4. 14.4.4. Truncated Cone (Frustum)
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_frustum.m”
          5. 14.4.5. Cylinder
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_cylinder.m”
          6. 14.4.6. Rectangular Flat Plate
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_rect_plate.m”
          7. 14.4.7. Triangular Flat Plate
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_isosceles.m”
        5. 14.5. RCS of Complex Objects
        6. 14.6. RCS Prediction Methods
          1. 14.6.1. Computational Electromagnetics
          2. 14.6.2. Finite Difference Time Domain Method
          3. 14.6.3. Finite Element Method
          4. 14.6.4. Integral Equations
          5. 14.6.5. Geometrical Optics
          6. 14.6.6. Physical Optics
            1. Rectangular Plate
            2. N-Sided Polygon
          7. 14.6.7. Edge Diffraction
        7. 14.7. Multiple Bounce
        8. Appendix 14-A: Chapter 14 MATLAB Code Listings
            1. MATLAB Function “rcs_aspect.m” Listing
            2. MATLAB Program “Fig.14_3.m” Listing
            3. MATLAB Function “rcs_frequency.m” Listing
            4. MATLAB Program “Fig.14_5_6.m” Listing
            5. MATLAB Program “Fig.14_10.m” Listing
            6. MATLAB Function “rcs_ellipsoid.m” Listing
            7. MATLAB Program “Fig14_12a.m” Listing
            8. MATLAB Function “rcs_circ_plate.m” Listing
            9. MATLAB Function “rcs_frustum.m” Listing
            10. MATLAB Function “rcs_cylinder.m” Listing
            11. MATLAB Program “Fig14_19.m” Listing
            12. MATLAB Function “rcs_rect_plate.m” Listing
            13. MATLAB Function “rcs_isosceles.m” Listing
            14. MATLAB Program “rcs_cylinder_cmplx.m” Listing
            15. MATLAB Program “fdtd.m” Listing
            16. MATLAB Program “rectplate.m” Listing
            17. MATLAB Program “polygon.m” Listing
        1. Figure 14.1
        2. Figure 14.2
        3. Figure 14.3
        4. Figure 14.4
        5. Figure 14.5
        6. Figure 14.6
        7. Figure 14.7
        8. Figure 14.8
        9. Figure 14.9
        10. Figure 14.10a
        11. Figure 14.10b
        12. Figure 14.11
        13. Figure 14.12a
        14. Figure 14.12b
        15. Figure 14.13
        16. Figure 14.14
        17. Figure 14.16
        18. Figure 14.15
        19. Figure 14.17a
        20. Figure 14.17b
        21. Figure 14.18
        22. Figure 14.19a
        23. Figure 14.19b
        24. Figure 14.20
        25. Figure 14.21a
        26. Figure 14.21b
        27. Figure 14.21c
        28. Figure 14.22
        29. Figure 14.23
        30. Figure 14.24
        31. Figure 14.25
        32. Figure 14.26
        33. Figure 14.27
        34. Figure 14.28
      2. Chapter 15: Phased Array Antennas
        1. 15.1. Directivity, Power Gain, and Effective Aperture
        2. 15.2. Near and Far Fields
        3. 15.3. General Arrays
        4. 15.4. Linear Arrays
          1. 15.4.1. Array Tapering
          2. 15.4.2. Computation of the Radiation Pattern via the DFT
            1. MATLAB Function “linear_array.m”
        5. 15.5. Planar Arrays
          1. 15.5.1. Rectangular Grid Arrays
          2. 15.5.2. Circular Grid Arrays
            1. MATLAB program “circular_array.m”
          3. 15.5.3. Concentric Grid Circular Arrays
          4. 15.5.4. Rectangular Grid with Circular Boundary Arrays
          5. 15.5.5. Hexagonal Grid Arrays
            1. MATLAB Function “rect_array.m”
            2. MATLAB Function “circ_array.m”
        6. 15.6. Array Scan Loss
        7. 15.7. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) - Linear Array
        8. Appendix 15-A: Chapter 15 MATLAB Code Listings
            1. MATLAB Program “Fig15_5.m” Listing
            2. MATLAB Program “Fig15_7.m” Listing
            3. MATLAB Function “linear_array.m” Listing
            4. MATLAB Program “circular_array.m” Listing
            5. MATLAB Function “rect_array.m” Listing
            6. MATLAB Function “circ_array.m” Listing
            7. MATLAB Function “rect_to_circ.m” Listing
            8. MATLAB Program “Fig15_51.m” Listing
        1. Figure 15.1
        2. Figure 15.2
        3. Figure 15.3
        4. Figure 15.4
        5. Figure 15.5a
        6. Figure 15.5b
        7. Figure 15.6
        8. Figure 15.7
        9. Figure 15.8
        10. Figure 15.9
        11. Figure 15.10
        12. Figure 15.11
        13. Figure 15.12
        14. Figure 15.13
        15. Figure 15.14
        16. Figure 15.15
        17. Figure 15.16
        18. Figure 15.17
        19. Figure 15.18
        20. Figure 15.19
        21. Figure 15.20
        22. Figure 15.21
        23. Figure 15.22
        24. Figure 15.23
        25. Figure 15.24
        26. Figure 15.25
        27. Figure 15.26
        28. Figure 15.27
        29. Figure 15.28
        30. Figure 15.29
        31. Figure 15.30
        32. Figure 15.31
        33. Figure 15.32
        34. Figure 15.33
        35. Figure 15.34
        36. Figure 15.35
        37. Figure 15.36
        38. Figure 15.37a
        39. Figure 15.37b
        40. Figure 15.38a
        41. Figure 15.38b
        42. Figure 15.39a
        43. Figure 15.39b
        44. Figure 15.40a
        45. Figure 15.40b
        46. Figure 15.41a
        47. Figure 15.41b
        48. Figure 15.42a
        49. Figure 15.42b
        50. Figure 15.43a
        51. Figure 15.43b
        52. Figure 15.44a
        53. Figure 15.44b
        54. Figure 15.45a
        55. Figure 15.45b
        56. Figure 15.46a
        57. Figure 15.46b
        58. Figure 15.47a
        59. Figure 15.467b
        60. Figure 15.48a
        61. Figure 15.48b
        62. Figure 15.49a
        63. Figure 15.49b
        64. Figure 15.50
        65. Figure 15.51
        66. Figure 15.52
        1. Table 15.1
        2. Table 15.2
      3. Chapter 16: Adaptive Signal Processing
        1. 16.1. Nonadaptive Beamforming
        2. 16.2. Adaptive Signal Processing Using Least Mean Square (LMS)
            1. MATLAB Function “LMS.m”
        3. 16.3. The LMS Adaptive Array Processing
            1. MATLAB Function “adaptive_array_lms.m”
        4. 16.4. Sidelobe Cancelers (SLC)
        5. 16.5. Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP)
          1. 16.5.1. Space Time Processing
          2. 16.5.2. Space Time Adaptive Processing
        6. Appendix 16-A: Chapter 16 MATLAB Code Listings
            1. MATLAB Function “LMS.m” Listing
            2. MATLAB Program “Fig16_4_5.m” Listing
            3. MATLAB Function “adaptive_array_lms.m” Listing
            4. MATLAB Function “la_sampled_wave.m” Listing
            5. MATLAB Function “Linear_array_FFT.m” Listing
            6. MATLAB Program “run_stap.m” Listing
            7. MATLAB Function “stap_std.m” Listing
            8. MATLAB Function “stap_smaa.m” Listing
            9. MATLAB Function “st_steering_vector.m” Listing
            10. MATLAB Function “smaa_st_steering_vector.m” Listing
        1. Figure 16.1
        2. Figure 16.2
        3. Figure 16.3
        4. Figure 16.4
        5. Figure 16.5
        6. Figure 16.6
        7. Figure 16.7
        8. Figure 16.8a
        9. Figure 16.8b
        10. Figure 16.9
        11. Figure 16.10
        12. Figure 16.11
        13. Figure 16.12
        14. Figure 16.13
        15. Figure 16.14
        16. Figure 16.15
        17. Figure 16.16
        18. Figure 16.17
        19. Figure 16.18
      4. Chapter 17: Target Tracking
        1. 17.1. Angle Tracking
          1. 17.1.1. Sequential Lobing
          2. 17.1.2. Conical Scan
        2. 17.2. Amplitude Comparison Monopulse
            1. MATLAB Function “mono_pulse.m”
        3. 17.3. Phase Comparison Monopulse
        4. 17.4. Range Tracking
        5. 17.5. Track-While-Scan (TWS)
        6. 17.6. State Variable Representation of an LTI System
        7. 17.7. The LTI System of Interest
        8. 17.8. Fixed-Gain Tracking Filters
            1. Notation:
          1. 17.8.1. The αβ Filter
          2. 17.8.2. The αβγ Filter
            1. MATLAB Function “ghk_tracker.m”
        9. 17.9. The Kalman Filter
          1. 17.9.1. The Singer αβγ-Kalman Filter
          2. 17.9.2. Relationship between Kalman and αβγ Filters
            1. MATLAB Function “kalman_filter.m”
        10. 17.10. MATLAB Kalman Filter Simulation
        11. Appendix 17-A: Chapter 17 MATLAB Code Listings
            1. MATLAB Function “mono_pulse.m” Listing
            2. MATLAB Function “ghk_tracker.m” Listing
            3. MATLAB Function “ghk_tracker1.m” Listing
            4. MATLAB Program “Fig17_20s.m” Listing
            5. MATLAB Function “kalman_filter.m” Listing
            6. MATLAB Program “Fig17-29.m” Listing
            7. MATLAB Program “Fig17_30.m” Listing
            8. MATLAB Function “maketraj.m” Listing
            9. MATLAB Function “addnoise.m” Listing
            10. MATLAB Function “kalfilt.m” Listing
        1. Figure 17.1
        2. Figure 17.2
        3. Figure 17.3
        4. Figure 17.4
        5. Figure 17.5
        6. Figure 17.6
        7. Figure 17.7
        8. Figure 17.8
        9. Figure 17.9
        10. Figure 17.10
        11. Figure 17.11a
        12. Figure 17.11b
        13. Figure 17.11c
        14. Figure 17.12a
        15. Figure 17.12b
        16. Figure 17.12c
        17. Figure 17.13a
        18. Figure 17.13b
        19. Figure 17.14
        20. Figure 17.15
        21. Figure 17.16
        22. Figure. 9.17
        23. Figure 17.18
        24. Figure 17.19
        25. Figure 17.20
        26. Figure 17.21
        27. Figure 17.22
        28. Figure 17.23
        29. Figure 17.24a-1
        30. Figure 17.24a-2
        31. Figure 17.24b-1
        32. Figure 17.24b-2
        33. Figure 17.25a-1
        34. Figure 17.25a-2
        35. Figure 17.25b-1
        36. Figure 17.25b-2
        37. Figure 17.26a
        38. Figure 17.26b
        39. Figure 17.27a
        40. Figure 17.27b
        41. Figure 17.28
        42. Figure 17.29a
        43. Figure 17.29b
        44. Figure 17.30a
        45. Figure 17.30b
        46. Figure 17.31
        47. Figure 17.32
        48. Figure 17.33
        49. Figure 17.34
        50. Figure 17.35
        51. Figure 17.36
        52. Figure 17.37
        53. Figure 17.38
        54. Figure 17.39
        55. Figure 17.40
        56. Figure 17.41
        57. Figure 17.42
        1. Table 17.1
      5. Chapter 18: Tactical Synthetic Aperture Radars
        1. 18.1. Introduction
          1. 18.1.1. Side Looking SAR Geometry
        2. 18.2. SAR Design Considerations
        3. 18.3. SAR Radar Equation
        4. 18.4. SAR Signal Processing
        5. 18.5. Side Looking SAR Doppler Processing
        6. 18.6. SAR Imaging Using Doppler Processing
        7. 18.7. Range Walk
        8. 18.8. A Three-Dimensional SAR Imaging Technique
          1. 18.8.1. Background
          2. 18.8.2. DFTSQM Operation and Signal Processing
            1. Linear Arrays
            2. Rectangular Arrays
          3. 18.8.3. Geometry for DFTSQM SAR Imaging
          4. 18.8.4. Slant Range Equation
          5. 18.8.5. Signal Synthesis
          6. 18.8.6. Electronic Processing
          7. 18.8.7. Derivation of Eq. (18.71)
          8. 18.8.8. Non-Zero Taylor Series Coefficients for the k<span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cSuperscript">th</span> Range Cell Range Cell
        9. Appendix 18-A: Chapter 18 MATLAB Code Listings
            1. MATLAB Program “Fig18_12-13.m” Listing
        1. Figure 18.1
        2. Figure 18.2
        3. Figure 18.3
        4. Figure 18.4a
        5. Figure 18.4b
        6. Figure 18.5
        7. Figure 18.6
        8. Figure 18.7
        9. Figure 18.8
        10. Figure 18.9
        11. Figure 18.10
        12. Figure 18.11
        13. Figure 18.12
        14. Figure 18.13
        15. Figure 18.14
        16. Figure 18.15
        17. Figure 18.16
      6. Bibliography