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Quantum Transport by Yaroslav M. Blanter, Yuli V. Nazarov

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3.5 Macroscopic quantum mechanics

As we have learned, Coulomb blockade distinguishes states that differ by charge accumulated in an almost isolated metal island. At sufficiently low temperature and voltage, the island is in a certain charge state, while finite temperature and voltage causes transitions between different charge states. These states, however, are classical rather than quantum. The island is always supposed to be in a certain charge state, and never in a quantum superposition of the two.

The situation changes if both the island and the electrodes become superconducting. Superconductivity is essentially a coherent phenomenon. Gauge ...

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