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Quantum Radar

Book Description

This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming. This book assumes the reader is familiar with the basic principles of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, special relativity, and classical electrodynamics. Our discussion of quantum electrodynamics and its application to quantum radar is brief, but all the relevant equations are presented in the text. In addition, the reader is not required to have any specialized knowledge on classical radar theory. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Photon / Photon Scattering / Classical Radar Theory / Quantum Radar Theory / Quantum Radar Cross Section / Conclusions

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Copyright
  4. Title
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 The Need for Improved Radar Systems
    2. 1.2 From Quantum Information to Quantum Sensors
    3. 1.3 Quantum Radar Technology
    4. 1.4 The Quantum Radar Research Community
    5. 1.5 Summary
  10. 2 The Photon
    1. 2.1 Maxwell Equations
    2. 2.2 Electromagnetic Quantum Fields
    3. 2.3 The Photon
    4. 2.4 Photon Interactions
    5. 2.5 The Classical Limit
    6. 2.6 Photon Localization
    7. 2.7 Photon Detection
    8. 2.8 The Photon Wave Function
    9. 2.9 Propagation in Attenuating Media
      1. 2.9.1 Attenuation of Classical Light
      2. 2.9.2 Attenuation of Quantum Light
    10. 2.10 Summary
  11. 3 Photon Scattering
    1. 3.1 Physical Properties of the Specular Reflection of Light
    2. 3.2 Atom-Photon Scattering
      1. 3.2.1 The Transition Amplitude
      2. 3.2.2 The Scattering Cross Section
      3. 3.2.3 The Scattering Tensor
      4. 3.2.4 Frequency Invariance
      5. 3.2.5 Quartic Frequency Dependence
    3. 3.3 Mirror-Photon Scattering
      1. 3.3.1 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
      2. 3.3.2 Young’s Double Scatterer Experiment
      3. 3.3.3 Young’s Multiple Scatterer Experiment
      4. 3.3.4 Specular Reflection as a Scattering Process
      5. 3.3.5 The Classical Path of the Photon
    4. 3.4 Further Developments
      1. 3.4.1 Good Reflectors
      2. 3.4.2 The Size of the Mirror
      3. 3.4.3 Inter-Atomic Distances
      4. 3.4.4 Number of Photons
    5. 3.5 Summary
  12. 4 Classical Radar Theory
    1. 4.1 The Radar Equation
    2. 4.2 Maximum Detection Range
    3. 4.3 Radar Jamming
    4. 4.4 The Radar Cross Section
    5. 4.5 Scattering Regimes
    6. 4.6 The Radar X-Band
    7. 4.7 Scattering Mechanisms
    8. 4.8 Specular and End-Region Returns
      1. 4.8.1 Spherical Target
      2. 4.8.2 Rectangular Target
      3. 4.8.3 Geometry, Frequency, and Sidelobes
    9. 4.9 Energy Conservation in the Optical Regime
    10. 4.10 Radar as an Information Channel
    11. 4.11 Summary
  13. 5 Quantum Radar Theory
    1. 5.1 Standoff Quantum Sensors
      1. 5.1.1 The Fundamental Limits of Quantum Metrology
      2. 5.1.2 Classification of Standoff Quantum Sensors
      3. 5.1.3 Single-Photon Quantum Radar
      4. 5.1.4 Entangled-Photons Quantum Radar
      5. 5.1.5 Quantum LADAR
    2. 5.2 Interferometric Quantum Radar
      1. 5.2.1 Quantum Interferometry
      2. 5.2.2 Attenuated Quantum Interferometry
      3. 5.2.3 Separable States
      4. 5.2.4 Atmospheric Quantum Interferometry
      5. 5.2.5 Adaptive Optics Correction
    3. 5.3 Quantum Illumination
      1. 5.3.1 Non-Entangled Photons
      2. 5.3.2 Entangled Photons
      3. 5.3.3 Sensitivity Comparison
      4. 5.3.4 Gaussian States
      5. 5.3.5 Entangled Measurements
    4. 5.4 Quantum Radar Jamming
    5. 5.5 Physical Realization of a Quantum Radar
      1. 5.5.1 Transmitter
      2. 5.5.2 Receiver
    6. 5.6 Summary
  14. 6 Quantum Radar Cross Section
    1. 6.1 Desired Features of σQ
    2. 6.2 Incident and Scattered Quantum Fields
    3. 6.3 Operational Definition of σQ
    4. 6.4 The Quantum Radar Equation
    5. 6.5 Simulation of σQ for Rectangular Targets
      1. 6.5.1 Analytical Expression
      2. 6.5.2 Sidelobe Structure
      3. 6.5.3 σQ vs. σC
      4. 6.5.4 Target’s Geometry
      5. 6.5.5 Range Independence
      6. 6.5.6 Small Size Targets
      7. 6.5.7 High Frequency Photons
      8. 6.5.8 Atomic Structure
      9. 6.5.9 Multiple Photons
    6. 6.6 Summary
  15. 7 Conclusions
    1. 7.1 Open Questions
    2. 7.2 The Bottom Line
  16. Bibliography
  17. Author’s Biography