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Quantum Processes Systems, and Information by Michael Westmoreland, Benjamin Schumacher

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A Appendix A Probability

A.1 Random variables

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Probability is an essential idea in both information theory and quantum mechanics. It is a highly developed mathematical and philosophical subject of its own, worthy of serious study. In this brief appendix, however, we can only sketch a few elementary concepts, tools, and theorems that we use elsewhere in the text.

In discussing the properties of a collection of sets, it is often useful to suppose that they are all subsets of an overall “universe” set U. The universe serves as a frame within which unions, intersections, complements, and other set operations can be described. In much the same way, ...

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