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Quantum Processes Systems, and Information by Michael Westmoreland, Benjamin Schumacher

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9  Open systems

9.1  Open system dynamics

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Any quantum system Q in our laboratory is a subsystem of something bigger. Nevertheless, we can often ignore the rest of the world and consider only states, dynamics, and measurements pertaining to Q itself. When can we do this? That is the question that concerns us in this chapter.

Consider two quantum systems, a system of interest Q and another, external system E. We will suppose that Q can have any initial state, but E starts out in a fixed pure state that we will call |0image .1 Thus, Q and E initially have ...

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