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Quantum Optics by Girish S. Agarwal

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9

Open quantum systems

This chapter is devoted to the dynamical evolution of open quantum system [13]. An open quantum system is one where it interacts with the environment. A system undergoing relaxation is an example of an open quantum system. We have already come across an example of open quantum system in Chapter 7 where we have discussed spontaneous emission from a two-level system. The two-level system interacts with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field. The vacuum consists of infinite number of modes and is a large system. The vacuum in this case is the environment. The population in the excited state decays. A photon is emitted and the emitted photon leaves the vicinity of the atom, i.e. the emitted photon is not reabsorbed by the ...

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