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Quantum Mechanics with Basic Field Theory by Bipin R. Desai

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5 Particles with spin ½

We previously considered angular momentum, which has a classical counterpart. We will continue with the free particle system but this time confine ourselves to a uniquely quantum-mechanical concept of particles of spin ½. A large number of particles in nature have spin ½ such as electrons, protons, neutrons, leptons, and quarks. To understand its mathematical origin one must go to relativistic quantum mechanics as outlined by Dirac’s theory. This is discussed in Chapter 33 on the Dirac equation but, in the meantime, in this chapter, we consider the nonrelativistic, phenomenological aspect of this concept. We will also consider the Pauli exclusion principle for spin ½ particles and conclude with a description of Fermi levels ...

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