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Quantum and Optical Dynamics of Matter for Nanotechnology

Book Description

With the emergence of nanoscience and technology in the 21st century, research has shifted its focus on the quantum and optical dynamical properties of matter such as atoms, molecules, and solids which are properly characterized in their dynamic state. Quantum and Optical Dynamics of Matter for Nanotechnology carefully addresses the general key concepts in this field and expands to more complex discussions on the most recent advancements and techniques related to quantum dynamics within the confines of physical chemistry. This book is an essential reference for academics, researchers, professionals, and advanced students interested in a modern discussion of the niche area of nanotechnology.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
    1. SECTION 1: QUANTUM DYNAMICS OF NANO-SYSTEMS
    2. SECTION 2: NANO-INTERFEROMETRY
    3. SECTION 3: NANO-DIFFRACTION
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Section 1: Quantum Dynamics of Nano-Systems
    1. Chapter 1: Interacting Quantum Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1.2. SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION
      4. 1.3. TIME-EVOLUTION OPERATOR
      5. 1.4. TRANSITION RATES AND AMPLITUDES
      6. 1.5. THE SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
      7. 1.6. REDUCED STATISTICAL OPERATOR
      8. 1.7. PROJECTOR OPERATOR FORMALISM: INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
      9. 1.8. THE GENERALIZED MASTER EQUATION: MEMORY EFFECTS
      10. 1.9. MORE RESERVOIR CORRELATIONS
      11. 1.10. THE MARKOVIAN QUANTUM MASTER EQUATION
      12. 1.11. THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION
      13. 1.12. PATH INTEGRAL METHOD OF QUANTUM DYNAMICS
      14. 1.13. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: The Dynamics of Molecular Photo-Dissociation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 2.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2.2. TYPES OF PHOTO-DISSOCIATION
      4. 2.3. FORMS OF CROSS-SECTIONS
      5. 2.4. TIME-DEPENDENT PERTURBATION THEORY
      6. 2.5. ABSORPTION CROSS-SECTION
      7. 2.6. THE BORN-OPPENHEIMER APPROXIMATION
      8. 2.7. TRANSITIONS IN A TRIATOMIC MOLECULE
      9. 2.8. THE QUANTUM EQUATIONS OF PHOTODISSOCIATION
      10. 2.9. AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTIONS: THE TOTAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM
      11. 2.10. EVOLUTION OF THE WAVE-PACKET
      12. 2.11. INDIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION
      13. 2.12. DECAY OF THE EXCITED STATES
      14. 2.13. TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE-PACKETS: RECURRENCES
      15. 2.14. TIME-INDEPENDENT WAVE-PACKETS: RESONANCES
      16. 2.15. EMISSION AND DISSOCIATION SPECTROSCOPY
      17. 2.16. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: The Fundamentals of Quantum Optical Transitions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 3.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 3.2. CAVITY MODES OF BLACK-BODY RADIATION
      4. 3.3. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LASERS
      5. 3.4. THE WIDTHS AND PROFILES OF SPECTRAL LINES
      6. 3.5. THE COLLISION BROADENING OF SPECTRAL LINES
      7. 3.6. DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS ABSORPTION AND EMISSION SPECTRA
      8. 3.7. LIFETIMES: SPONTANEOUS AND RADIATIONLESS TRANSITIONS
      9. 3.8. A SEMICLASSICAL DESCRIPTION OF TRANSITION AMPLITUDES
      10. 3.9. DECAY PHENOMENA
      11. 3.10. INTERACTIONS WITH STRONG FIELDS
      12. 3.11. COHERENT EXCITATIONS AND RELAXATIONS
      13. 3.12. LINE BROADENING, SATURATION BY OPTICAL PUMPING, AND PROFILES IN LIQUIDS/SOLIDS
      14. 3.13. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: Light Amplification Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 4.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 4.2. A LASER’S THRESHOLD CONDITION
      4. 4.3. RATE EQUATIONS
      5. 4.4. OPEN OPTICAL RESONATORS: PLANE RESONATORS
      6. 4.5. OPEN OPTICAL RESONATORS: SPATIAL FIELD DISTRIBUTION
      7. 4.6. GAUSSIAN BEAMS
      8. 4.7. CONFOCAL RESONATORS
      9. 4.8. STABLE AND UNSTABLE RESONATORS
      10. 4.9. RING RESONATOR
      11. 4.10. THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF THE PASSIVE RESONATOR
      12. 4.11. ACTIVE RESONATORS. LASER MODES
      13. 4.12. GAIN SATURATION AND HOLE BURNING
      14. 4.13. MULTIMODE LASER. GAIN COMPETITION AND MODE PULLING
      15. 4.14. LINE SELECTION
      16. 4.15. THE LINEWIDTHS OF SINGLE-MODE LASERS
      17. 4.16. THE BASICS OF POLARIZATION SPECTROSCOPY
      18. 4.17. STIMULATED RAMAN SCATTERING
      19. 4.18. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: The Basics of Non-Linear Optics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 5.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 5.2. GENERAL MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
      4. 5.3. THE COUPLED SUBSTANCE -WAVE EQUATIONS
      5. 5.4. THE MANLEY-ROWE RELATIONSHIPS
      6. 5.5. SUM-FREQUENCY GENERATION
      7. 5.6. DIFFERENCE-FREQUENCY GENERATION
      8. 5.7. SECOND HARMONIC GENERATION
      9. 5.8. PHASE-MATCHING CONSIDERATIONS
      10. 5.9. ALIGNMENTS OF NON-LINEAR OPTICS
      11. 5.10. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Molecular Light Control in Rare-Gases Matrices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 6.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 6.2. THE SPECTRA OF HCL IN NOBLE-GAS MATRICES
      4. 6.3. THE ROTATIONAL EFFECTS OF HYDRIDES IN RARE GAS MATRICES
      5. 6.4. THE VIBRATIONAL EFFECTS OF HYDRIDES IN RARE GAS MATRICES
      6. 6.5. SELECTIVE CHEMICAL REACTIONS
      7. 6.6. THE COOPERATIVE CHARGE TRANSFER DYNAMICS OF A LOCALIZED [ARCL] EXCIPLEX
      8. 6.7. COOPERATIVE PHOTOABSORPTION: THE HARPOON MECHANISM OF [XECL] EXCIPLEX
      9. 6.8. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 2: Nano-Interferometry
    1. Chapter 7: Raman Saturate Absorption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 7.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 7.2. STIMULATED RAMAN EFFECT
      4. 7.3. ATOMIC DYNAMICS WITHIN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS: THE LINEAR AND QUADRATIC EFFECTS
      5. 7.4. HOLE BURNING EFFECT
      6. 7.5. RAMAN-RAYLEIGH EFFECTS, DYNAMICS OF STARK SPLITTING, RABI FREQUENCIES
      7. 7.6. FINITE AND INFINITE ABSORPTION DOPPLER SHIFTS
      8. 7.7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 8: Spectral Atomic Selection and Pumping
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 8.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 8.2. THE RAMSEY EFFECT
      4. 8.3. ATOMIC PUMP: THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL AND IT’S ADIABATIC EXCLUSION
      5. 8.4. PI-PULSES AND RAMSEY-RAMAN SEQUENCE
      6. 8.5. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR INTERFEROMETER
      7. 8.6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 9: Gravitational Influence on Atomic Interference
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 9.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 9.2. ATOMIC INTERFEROMETER WITH GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
      4. 9.3. ATOMIC INTERFEROMETER WITH LASER FIELD
      5. 9.4. KASEVICH-CHU INTERFEROMETER
      6. 9.5. OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 10: General Relativity Evolution of the Photons in Dielectrics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 10.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 10.2. EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE AND LINEAR EINSTEIN EQUATIONS OF GRAVITY
      4. 10.3. LASER WAVES IN DIELECTRIC GUIDES
      5. 10.4. GRAVITATION FIELD FOR DIELECTRICS WITH LASER PULSE
      6. 10.5. EINSTEIN-MAXWELL EQUATIONS IN DIELECTRICS
      7. 10.6. GRAVITATIONAL DEVIATION OF LASER PULSES IN DIELECTRICS
      8. 10.7. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 3: Nano-Diffraction
    1. Chapter 11: General Concepts and Theories in X-Ray Diffraction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 11.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 11.2 GEOMETRIC VS. DYNAMIC THEORIES
      4. 11.3 PERFECT CRYSTAL DIFFRACTION
      5. 11.4 IMPERFECT CRYSTAL DIFFRACTION
      6. 11.5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 12: Classical and Quantum Theories of Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 12.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 12.2. SEMI-CLASSICAL THEORY
      4. 12.3. QUANTUM THEORY
      5. 12.4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 13: The Concept of X-Ray Standing Wave
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 13.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 13.2. ANOMALOUS ABSORPTION VS. FLUORESCENCE
      4. 13.3. ATOMIC SCATTERING FACTOR
      5. 13.4. THE CRYSTAL WITH A BURIED LAYER
      6. 13.5. DISTORTED CRYSTALS
      7. 13.6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 14: Experimental Implications of X-Ray Standing Waves
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 14.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 14.2. FORMAL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS
      4. 14.3. FIELDS AND DIFFRACTION INTENSITIES
      5. 14.4. EXPERIMENTAL VS. THEORETICAL FLUORESCENCE
      6. 14.5. ASYMMETRICAL BRAG FACTOR: SUCCESSIVE DIFFRACTION
      7. 14.6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 15: Absorption Coefficients of Inelastic Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 15.1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 15.2. DISPERSION EQUATION IN INELASTIC DIFFRACTION
      4. 15.3. VIBRATIONAL LATTICE EFFECTS IN ABSORPTION
      5. 15.4. INELASTIC ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS
      6. 15.5. CONCLUSION
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Author