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Quality of Service Architectures for Wireless Networks: Performance Metrics and Management

Book Description

Quality of Service Architectures for Wireless Networks: Performance Metrics and Management presents a comprehensive collection of quality of service mechanisms for various access technologies and introduces existing and traditional approaches to traffic management for wireless technologies. With expert international contributions, this critical mass of knowledge covers both academic and industry-based state-of-the-art techniques and ongoing research.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. List of Reviewers
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. 1. Introduction
    1. OVERVIEW
      1. Standardization Bodies
      2. Book Organization
    2. 1. QOS IN BROADBAND WIRELESS NETWORKS
    3. 2. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR QOS
    4. 3. QOS ISSUES IN MOBILITY
    5. 4. QOS FOR MULTIMEDIA
    6. 5. QOS IN AD-HOC AND MESH NETWORKS
    7. 6. QOS IN FUTURE WIRELESS NETWORKS
  6. 1. Broadband
    1. 2. Quality of Service in UMTS Mobile Systems
      1. 1.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 1.2. UMTS Architecture
      3. 1.3. Qos Architecture of UMTS
        1. 1.3.1. Bearer Services
        2. 1.3.2. QoS Management Functions in the Network
      4. 1.4. Service Categories
        1. 1.4.1. UMTS Bearer Service Attributes
        2. 1.4.2. QoS Requirements
      5. 1.5. Other QoS Parameters
      6. 1.6. QoS in Layer Two
        1. 1.6.1. Error Recovery Mechanisms in Layer Two
        2. 1.6.2. General Concepts About Transport Channels
        3. 1.6.3. Throughput Evaluation
      7. 1.7. TCP/Layer 2 Effects on the Air Interface Throughput
      8. 1.8. HSDPA
        1. 1.8.1. Changes in HSDPA
      9. 1.9. Traffic Effects on the System Capacity
        1. 1.9.1. Capacity Calculations
      10. 1.10. Data Traffic Considerations
        1. 1.10.1. Delay Calculations
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 3. QoS Architecture of WiMAX
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION TO WIMAX QOS ARCHITECTURE
      3. 2. END-TO-END WIMAX NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND THE SUPPORT OF QOS
        1. 2.1. Wimax Network Architecture to Support QoS
        2. 2.2. Wimax QoS Setup Procedures
        3. 2.3. Universal Services Interface (USI) to Enhance QoS for the Web Based Applications
        4. 2.4. Setting up QoS Enabled VoIP Calls from the Internet via USI
        5. MS-Originated Voip Call Establishment
        6. MS-Terminated Voip Call Establishment
      4. 3. IEEE 802.16 AIR INTERFACE MECHANISMS TO SUPPORT QOS
        1. 3.1. Physical Layer Functions for QoS support
        2. 3.2. MAC Layer Functions for QoS Support
          1. 3.2.1. Service Flow Classification and Dynamic Service Establishment
          2. 3.2.2. Bandwidth Request and Grants
        3. 3.3. QoS Support for VoIP
          1. 3.3.1. Link Adaptation
          2. 3.3.2. HARQ
          3. 3.3.3. Packet Header Compression
          4. 3.3.4. Silence Suppression and Bandwidth Request
          5. 3.3.5. Persistent Scheduling
          6. 3.3.6. Fast Connection Setup via Paging During Idle Mode
          7. 3.3.7. Optimized HO Mechanism
      5. 4. NEXT GENERATION WIMAX AIR INTERFACE AND NETWORKS
      6. 5. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 4. Cross-Layer Architecture: The WiMAX Point of View
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
      4. WIMAX: QOS IN A MIXED MOBILE-FIXED NETWORK
        1. QoS Mechanisms Offered by IEEE 802.16
        2. MAC Layer Point of View
        3. PMP Mode QoS Introduction
        4. Mesh Mode QoS Introduction
          1. Packet by Packet QoS Application
        5. PHY Layer Point of View
        6. AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding
          1. IEEE 802.16 Mobility QoS Introduction
        7. QoS and Handover
      5. WHAT'S MISSING?
        1. MAC Layer Missing Elements
        2. Scheduling Algorithm
          1. PMP Mode
          2. Mesh Mode
            1. Distributed Algorithm
            2. Centralized Algorithm
        3. Call Admission Control Algorithm
          1. PMP Mode
          2. Mesh Mode
        4. PHY Layer Lacks
        5. QoS-Based AMC Algorithm
        6. Cross-Layer QoS Architecture
      6. FUTURE QOS CHALLENGES
        1. End-to-End QoS in Heterogeneous Architecture
        2. WiMAX and Wi-Fi
        3. WiMax and 3G
        4. New Way to Resolve Wimax QoS Problem
        5. Games Theory on End-to-End WiMAX Scenario
        6. Fuzzy Logic, What Idea to Guarantee QoS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 5. Quantifying Operator Benefits of Wireless Load Distribution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. Model of Load Sharing Benefits
        1. Capacity
        2. Network Flexibility
        3. Survivability
        4. Modularity
        5. Service Focus
        6. Quality of Service
        7. Auto-Reconfigurability
      5. 4. CAPACITY OPTIMIZATION SIMULATION
        1. HSPA + −> WLAN Model
        2. HSPA + −> WLAN Results and Analysis
      6. 5. CONSIDERATION AND INTERPRETATION OF METRICS
        1. Real World Considerations
        2. Metrics for the Example Scenario
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. 7. REFERENCES
  7. 2. Resource Management
    1. 6. Delay-Based Admission Control to Sustain QoS in a Managed IEEE 802.1 1 Wireless LANs
      1. 1. ABSTRACT
      2. 2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 3. QUALITY OF SERVICE SUPPORT AND ADMISSION CONTROL IN IEEE 802.11
        1. 3.1. IEEE 802.11 Basic Access Mechanism: DCF
        2. 3.2. QoS Support in IEEE 802.11 Networks: 802.11e EDCA
        3. 3.3. Admission Control Mechanisms for IEEE 802.11 Networks
      4. 4. DELAY-BASED ADMISSION CONTROL
        1. 4.1. Delay Sensitive MAC Adaptation Model
          1. 4.1.1. Delay-Based CW Adjustment
          2. 4.1.2. Model Validation
        2. 4.2. Multimedia Services Admission and Protection
          1. 3.2.2. Admission Control Coordination
      5. 5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. 5.1. Simulation Model
        2. 5.2. Experimental Results
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    2. 7. Resource Allocation and QoS Provisioning for Wireless Relay Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY
        1. Amplify-and-Forward
        2. Decode-and-Forward
        3. Selection/Opportunistic Relaying
        4. Incremental Relaying
        5. Other Protocol Enhancements
        6. Further Discussions
      4. APPLICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY
        1. Cellular Relay Networks
        2. Cluster-Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
        3. Cooperative Broadcast in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
      5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND QOS PROVISIONING FOR WIRELESS RELAY NETWORKS
      6. RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR COOPERATIVE WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Single-User Resource Allocation
        2. Multi-User Resource Allocation
          1. System Models
          2. Formulations of Power Allocation Problem
            1. A. Max-Min Rate Fairness Based Power Allocation
            2. B. Weighted-Sum of Rates Fairness Based Power Allocation
          3. Distributed Implementation for Power Allocation
          4. Distributed Power Allocation Algorithm
          5. Joint Admission Control and Power Allocation
            1. A. Reformulation of Admission Control and Power Allocation Problem
            2. B. Low-Complexity Algorithm
          6. Joint Admission Control and Power Allocation Algorithm
        3. Numerical Results for Multi-User Resource Allocation
          1. Numerical Results for Power Allocation
          2. Numerical Results for Joint Admission Control and Power Allocation
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 8. User Based Call Admission Control Algorithms for Cellular Mobile Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CALL ADMISSION CONTROL
      4. 3. NON-PRIORITIZED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL POLICIES
      5. 4. PRIORITIZED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL POLICIES
        1. 4.1. Equal Access Sharing with Priority Policies (EASWP)
          1. 4.1.1. Call Thinning Schemes
          2. 4.1.2. New Call Thinning Schemes
        2. 4.2. Reservation Based Call Admission Control Policies
          1. 4.2.1. Equal Access Sharing with Reservation (EASWR)
          2. 4.2.2. Complete Partitioning Policies
        3. 4.3. Queuing Priority Schemes
          1. 4.3.1. New Call Queuing Schemes
          2. 4.3.2. Handoff Calls Queuing Schemes
          3. 4.3.3. All Calls Queuing Schemes
      6. 5. OPTIMAL CALL ADMISSION POLICIES
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 9. Admission Control and Scheduling for QoS Provisioning in WiMAX Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SCHEDULING
        1. State of the Art of IEEE 802.16 Scheduling Research
          1. PHY-Unaware Scheduling Mechanisms
          2. PHY-Aware Scheduling Mechanisms
      5. ADMISSION CONTROL
        1. State of the Art of IEEE 802.16 Admission Control Research
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. 10. Advancements on Packet Scheduling in Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. OVERVIEW OF MULTIMEDIA BROADCASTING IN HSTN
        1. 3.1. Standardization and System
        2. 3.2. Radio Resource Management Functions
        3. 3.3. Packet Scheduling
      4. 2. REVIEW OF PACKET SCHEDULING SCHEMES
        1. 4.1. QoS Considerations
        2. 4.2. Conventional Scheduling Schemes
        3. 4.3. Problems and Challenges
      5. 3. ADVANCED PACKET SCHEDULING SCHEMES
        1. 5.1. Proportional-Differentiation Based Schemes
        2. 5.2. Cross-Layer Design
        3. 5.3. QoS-Based Multidimensional Adaptation
        4. 5.4. CSI- and QSI- Based Schemes
        5. 5.5. Hierarchical Packet Scheduling
      6. 4. DISCUSSIONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
        1. 6.1. Flexibility
        2. 6.2. Scalability
        3. 6.3. Performance Analysis
      7. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      8. REFERENCES
  8. 3. Mobility
    1. 11. Quality of Service Issues in Micro Mobility Enabled Wireless Access Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. 2.1. Overview of Quality of Service
          1. QoS Forwarding Architectures
          2. Integrated Services
          3. Differentiated Services
          4. QoS Routing
        2. 2.2. Overview of Micro Mobility Management
          1. Localised Enhanced-Routing Schemes
          2. Mobility Agents Architecture Schemes
          3. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6
          4. Proxy Mobile IPv6
        3. 2.3. Overview of Mobility and QoS Interactions
      4. 3. QOS AND MICRO MOBILITY ISSUES: IMPACT OF MOBILITY AGENTS
        1. 3.1. Interactions Between MA and Handover Cost
        2. 3.2. Interactions Between MA and Routing Cost
        3. 3.3. Modelling of Handover Costs
        4. 3.5. Investigations on Impact of MA Deployment
      5. 4. OPTIMAL DEPLOYMENT OF MOBILITY AGENTS WITH QOS REQUIREMENTS
        1. 4.1. Uncapacitated Mobility Agent Location Problem
        2. 4.2. Capacitated Mobility Agent Location Problem
        3. 4.3. Numerical Investigation and Analysis
      6. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. 5.1. Autonomic Micro-Mobile Network Management
        2. 5.2. Per Flow Based Mobility Management
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. 7. REFERENCES
    2. 12. Handover Analysis and Dynamic Mobility Management for Wireless Cellular Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF HANDOVERS
        1. 2.1. The Mean Number of Handovers
        2. 2.2. Higher-Order Moments and Probability Distributions
      4. 3. GENERAL DISTRIBUTED CELL RESIDENCE TIMES
        1. 3.1. Some Basic Results of Cox Approach
        2. 3.2. The Case of Modified Renewal Processes
      5. 4. GENERAL DISTRIBUTED CALL HOLDING TIMES
        1. 4.1. Pareto Call Holding Times
      6. 5. MOBILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES AND BASIC MODEL
        1. 5.1. Mobility Management Schemes
        2. 5.2. Mathematical Model
      7. 6. COUNTING THE NUMBER OF HLR AND VLR LOCATION UPDATES
        1. 6.1. Number of HLR Location Updates
        2. 6.2. Number of VLR Location Updates
          1. 6.2.1. Calculation of ɛ1(j)
          2. 6.2.2. Calculation of ɛ2(j) and ɛ4(j)
          3. 6.2.3. Calculation of ɛ3(j)
          4. 6.2.4. Average Number of VLR Location Updates
        3. 6.3. Cost Calculation
      8. 7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    3. 13. Supporting Multiple Quality-of-Service Classes in IEEE 802.16e Handoff
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED STUDIES
        1. Quality of Services Support in IEEE 802.16
          1. QoS Scheduling Classes in IEEE 802.16
        2. IEEE 802.16e Handoff
        3. Related Studies in IEEE 802.16 Handoff
          1. Layer-2 Schemes
          2. Layer-3 Schemes
      4. PROPOSED SCHEME
        1. Basic Features and QoS Modes
        2. Handoff Sub-Schemes
          1. Mode 1: Conversational Mode (UGS)
          2. Mode 2: Streaming Mode (rtPS, ErtPS)
          3. Mode 3: Interactive Mode (nrtPS)
          4. Mode 4: Background Mode (nrtPS, BE)
          5. Mode 5: Standby Mode (No traffic)
        3. Additional Features
          1. Supporting Predictive and Reactive Modes
          2. Supporting Macro- and Micro-Mobility
          3. Supporting Mode Selection
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Simulation Setting
        2. Simulation Results
          1. Scenario 1: MS is Engaged in Two-Way Exchange of Real-Time Traffic (VoIP) with CN
          2. Scenario 2: MS is Viewing a Video File (Video Streaming) from CN
          3. Scenario 3: MS is Downloading a Data or Image File (FTP) from CN
          4. Scenario 4: MS is Performing a Backup of Data from the CN in the Background (Offline Database Operation)
          5. Scenario 5: MS is Idle with No Active Connections
      6. IMPLEMENTING ISSUES
        1. Cost Involved
          1. Mode Selection
          2. Buffering
          3. Tunneling
          4. Fast Downlink Data Transmission
          5. Fast Uplink Access
          6. Bicasting
          7. Summary of Costs
        2. Implementation of Mode Selection
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. 14. QoS in Vehicular Communication Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. DSRC/WAVE: Background and Network Architecture
        2. Real-Time Applications in VCNs
        3. QoS-Parameters in VCNs
      3. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR PROVIDING QOS IN VCNS
        1. Issues and Challenges for Providing QoS in VANETs
        2. Issues and Challenges for Providing QoS IN Roadside Network
      4. CLASSIFICATIONS OF QOS-SOLUTIONS IN VCNS
        1. VCN-Level-Wise Classifications of Existing QoS Solutions
        2. Layer-Wise Classifications of Existing QoS-Solutions in VCNs
      5. QOS MODELS AND SOLUTIONS FOR VANETS
        1. MAC Layer Solutions
          1. IEEE 802.11e: WAVE and 802.11p QoS
        2. Network Layer Solutions
          1. Delay and Reliability Constrained QoS Routing Algorithm (DeReQ)
          2. GVGrid: A QoS Routing Protocol for VANETs
        3. Open Research QoS-Issues in VANETs
      6. QOS MODELS AND SOLUTIONS FOR ROADSIDE NETWORKS
        1. QoS Solutions for Wired Roadside Backbone Network
        2. QoS Solutions for Wireless Roadside Backbone Network
          1. Cluster-Oriented Routing Protocol (CORP)
          2. Host Abstraction Routing Platform (HARP)
          3. Packets Pre-Fetching Mechanisms
        3. Open Research QoS-Issues in Roadside Backbone Network
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. 4. Multimedia
    1. 15. Correlating Quality of Experience and Quality of Service for Network Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS AND QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE
        1. File Transfer
        2. Web Browsing
        3. Voice Over IP
        4. Video Streaming or Video Over IP
      3. NETWORK DEGRADATION AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
        1. Network Degradation
        2. QoS Metrics
        3. Assessing the QoS
        4. Wired vs. Wireless QoS
      4. QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE AND QUALITY OF SERVICE MEASUREMENT
        1. The QoS / QoE Measurement System
        2. Experiment Methodology
      5. CORRELATING QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
        1. 1st Case Study: File Transfer
        2. 2nd Case Study: Web Browsing
        3. 3rd Case Study: Voice Over IP
        4. 4th Case Study: Video Streaming
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 16. Quality of Experience vs. QoS in Video Transmission
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Standardization Bodies
        2. Video Quality
          1. Characterization and Causes of Video Quality Problems
        3. Subjective Metrics
          1. Conducting Subjective Evaluations
          2. BT.500 Recommendation
          3. Subjective Quality of Internet Video Codecs Methodology
          4. Considerations on the Statistical Treatment of Collected Data
        4. Objective Metrics
      4. METRICS, MODELS AND ARCHITECTURES FORAQOE ORIENTED VIDEO TRANSMISSION
        1. QoS Metrics Affecting QoE
        2. QoS and QoE Measurement and Assessment in Communication Networks
        3. Determining QoE in Transmission Networks
          1. Quality Measurement Points in a Video Distribution Framework
          2. Media Layer Models
          3. Parametric Packet-Layer and Planning Models
          4. Bit-Stream Models
          5. Hybrid Models
        4. QoE Assurance Solutions
          1. Retransmission Based Solutions
          2. Forward Error Correction (FEC) Based Solutions
          3. Hybrid Solutions
        5. Architectures and Solutions for QoE Assurance in Video Distribution
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 17. Video Distortion Estimation and Content-Aware QoS Strategies for Video Streaming over Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. I. INTRODUCTION
      3. II. CHAPTER OUTLINE
      4. III. ISSUES RELATED TO THE VIDEO TRANSMISSION OVER WIRELESS CHANNELS
      5. IV. MULTIMEDIA CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY OF SERVICE REQUIREMENTS
        1. A. Issues Related to QoS Evaluation
      6. V. NEED FOR CONTENT-AWARE STRATEGIES
      7. VI. REVIEW OF QOS TECHNIQUES
      8. VII. REVIEW OF PACKET SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES
      9. VIII. HINTING INFORMATION IN A PACKET
        1. A. MPEG-4 Hint Track and Proposed Integrations
      10. IX. LOSS DISTORTION MODELING
        1. A. Analytical Model for Estimating the Video Distortion
        2. B. Encoder Internal Operations
        3. C. Distortion Estimation Process: Hypotheses
        4. D. Channel Distortion Estimation Algorithms
          1. 1. Step Distortion Algorithm
          2. 2. Exponential Distortion Algorithm
          3. 3. Advanced Distortion Algorithm
      11. X. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
      12. XI. DISTORTION ESTIMATION IN PRACTICAL SCENARIOS
        1. A. Bandwidth Adaptation Using Distortion Estimation
        2. B. Wireless Video Scheduling Using Distortion Estimation
      13. XII. IMPLEMENTATION IN A REAL TEST BED
        1. A. Distortion Estimation at the Encoder
        2. B. A Streaming Evaluation Test Bed
        3. C. Results
      14. XIII. DEAS IN A MULTI-HOP ENVIRONMENT
      15. XIV. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. XV. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 18. Perceptual Quality Assessment of Packet-Based Vocal Conversations over Wireless Networks: Methodologies and Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. NETWORKING MULTIMEDIA SERVICES
      4. 3. ARCHITECTURE OF NEXT-GENERATION NETWORKS
      5. 4. QOS PROVISION APPROACHES
        1. 4.1. Reactive QoS Provision Strategy
        2. 4.2. Predictive QoS Provision Strategy
      6. 5. METHODOLOGIES FOR VOCAL SERVICE QUALITY EVALUATION
        1. 5.1. Subjective-Driven Vocal Service Quality Evaluation
          1. 5.1.1. Listening Tests for Telephony
          2. 5.1.2. Conversational Quality Tests
        2. 5.2. Automatic-Driven Vocal Service Quality Evaluation
          1. 5.2.1. Black Box Signal Approach
          2. 5.2.2. Glass Box System Parameter Approach
      7. 6. FRAMEWORKS FOR VOCAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT
        1. 6.1. Software-Based Vocal Quality Assessment Frameworks
        2. 6.2. Emulation-Based Vocal Quality Assessment Frameworks
      8. 7. PARAMETRIC MODEL-BASED VOCAL QUALITY PREDICTION
        1. 7.1. Vocal Quality Assessment over Cellular Telecom Networks
        2. 7.2. Vocal Quality Assessment over Packet-Based Networks
          1. 7.2.1. VQmon of Telechmy
          2. 7.2.2. PsyVoIP of Psytechnics
      9. 8. VOCAL QUALITY MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS
        1. 8.1. Quality-Based QoS Management of VoIP calls
        2. 8.2. Quality-Based Network Selection
        3. 8.3. Quality-Based Handover Management
        4. 8.4. Quality-Based De-Jittering Management
      10. 9. CONCLUSION AND OPEN ISSUES
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    5. 19. Quality of Service Provisioning in the IP Multimedia Subsystem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM
      4. 3. IMS/NGN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS
        1. 3.1. 3GPP Policy Control and Charging Framework
          1. 3.1.1. Functional Elements
          2. 3.1.2. Reference Point Definitions
        2. 3.2. TISPAN Resource and Admission Control Subsystem
          1. 3.2.1. Functional Elements
          2. 3.2.2. Reference Point Definitions
        3. 3.3. ITU-T Resource and Admission Control Functions
          1. 3.3.1. Functional Elements
          2. 3.3.2. Reference Point Definitions
        4. 3.4. Generic QoS Management Framework
          1. 3.4.1. Architectural Alignment
          2. 3.4.2. Common PCC Framework
      5. 4. DEPLOYMENT CHALLENGES
        1. 4.1. Vertical Coordination of Resources
          1. 4.1.1. A Framework for SIP Session Policies
          2. 4.1.2. Advanced QoS Negotiation
          3. 4.1.3. Policy Refinement
        2. 4.2. Horizontal Coordination of Resources
          1. 4.2.1. IETF NSIS/NSLP
          2. 4.2.2. Future Internet: EuQoS Project
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  10. 5. Ad-Hoc/Mesh
    1. 20. Quality of Service (QoS) Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 1.1. Quality of Service (QoS)
          1. Dynamic Topology
          2. Imprecise State Information
          3. Lack of Central Co-ordination
          4. Hidden Terminal Problem
          5. Limited Resource Availability
          6. Error-Prone Shared Radio Channel
          7. Insecure Medium
        2. 1.2. Quality of Service (QoS) in MANETs
          1. QoS Support in Physical Layer
          2. QoS Provisioning at the MAC Layer
          3. QoS Provisioning at the Network Layer
          4. Transport Layer Issues for QoS Support
          5. Application Layer Issues for QoS Support
      3. 2. QOS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
        1. 2.1. Single Metric
          1. 2.1.1. Bandwidth
            1. Core-Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing (CEDAR)
            2. QoS Support Using Bandwidth Calculations
            3. On-Demand QoS Routing (OQR) Protocol
            4. Multi-Path QoS Routing
            5. INORA
            6. QoS-TORA
          2. 2.1.2. Power
            1. Power-Aware Multiple Access Protocol (PAMAS)
            2. Conditional Max-Min Battery Capacity Routing (CMMBCR)
            3. Maximum Residual Packet Capacity (MRPC) Protocol
            4. Localized Energy Aware Routing (LEAR) Protocol
          3. 2.1.3. Other Metrics
            1. Delay Sensitive Adaptive Routing Protocol (DSARP)
            2. Adaptive QoS Routing Algorithm (ADQR)
        2. 2.2. Multiple Metrics
          1. 2.2.1. Bandwidth and Delay
            1. Distributed Quality of Service Routing
            2. QoS-Enabled Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol
            3. Quality of Service Optimized Link State Routing (QOLSR)
            4. Ad Hoc QoS On-DEMAND ROUTING (AQOR)
          2. 2.2.2. Path and Power
      4. 3. ENERGY AND DELAY AWARE PROTOCOLS
        1. 3.1. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance vector (AODV) Routing
        2. 3.2. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
        3. 3.3. Energy and Delay Extension in AODV and DSR
            1. End-to-End Delay
            2. Remaining Energy
            3. 3.4. Energy and Delay Aware TORA (EDTORA)
            4. End-to-End Delay
            5. Network Lifetime
      5. 4. QOS ROUTING PROTOCOLS USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES
        1. Genetic Algorithm (GA) Based Routing Method
        2. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)
        3. 4.1. Ant Dynamic Source Routing and Ant Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm
          1. 4.1.1. Ant Dynamic Source Routing (ADSR)
            1. Route Discovery
            2. Route Maintenance
            3. End-to-End Delay
            4. Jitter
          2. 4.1.2. Ant Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (AntTORA)
            1. Route Creation
            2. Route Maintenance
            3. End-to-End Delay
            4. Jitter
            5. Energy
      6. 5. CROSS LAYER
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 21. QoS and Energy-Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF A BIO-INSPIRED QOS AND ENERGY-AWARE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WSNS
        1. QoS Guarantees
          1. Routing Discovery
          2. Routing Maintenance
        2. Energy Threshold Management
      5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A BIO-INSPIRED QOS AND ENERGY-AWARE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WSNS
        1. Assumptions
        2. Simulation Parameter Setup
        3. QoS Metric and Load Balancing Analyses
        4. Parameter Sensitivity Analyses
          1. Initialization of the Random Variants
          2. Pheromone Evaporation Coefficient
          3. Coefficients Related to Heuristic Information
          4. Coefficients Related to Energy and QoS Information
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 22. Queuing Delay Analysis of Multi – Radio Multi – Channel Wireless Mesh Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. I. INTRODUCTION
      3. II. BACKGROUND
        1. WMN Model
        2. MAC at Access Point
        3. Point-to-Point wireless Link
        4. Moment Bound
        5. Traffic Models
        6. A Challenge Problem
      4. III. A THEORETIC FRAMEWORK FOR PREDICTING END-TO-END DELAY
        1. Ingress Access Point Delay
        2. Point-to-Point Wireless Link Delay
        3. Characterization Of Down Stream Traffic
        4. Probabilistic Bound on End-to-End Delay
      5. IV. APPLICATIONS
        1. Effective Channel Capacity
        2. Probabilistic Delay Bounds
      6. V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 23. Scalable Wireless Mesh Network Architectures with QoS Provisioning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QOS-RELATED RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR WMNS
        1. Scalability
        2. Optimal Tradeoff Among Throughput, Coverage, and QoS
        3. Differentiated Services and QoS
        4. Power Unfairness Problem and Power Control
        5. Cognitive Radio
        6. Cooperative Communications
        7. Cross-Layer Design
      4. SCALABLE MESH NETWORK ARCHITECTURE: MULTI-CHANNEL OR SINGLE-CHANNEL
        1. Single-Channel Mesh Network
        2. Multi-Channel Mesh Network
          1. Single-Interface Multi-Channel WMN
          2. Multi-Interface Multi-Channel WMN
      5. SCALABLE MULTI-CHANNEL WMN ARCHITECTURE WITH QOS PROVISIONING
        1. Scalable Cluster-Based WMN for Dense-Urban Coverage
          1. Cluster-Based Network Architecture
          2. Scalability and QoS of Cluster-Based WMN
          3. Optimal Access Point Placement
            1. 1. Problem Formulation
            2. 2. MINLP Optimization Approach
        2. Scalable Ring-Based WMN for Wide-Area Coverage
          1. Ring-Based Network Architecture
          2. Ring-Based Frequency Planning
          3. Scalability, QoS, and Robustness of Ring-Based WMN
          4. Capacity and Coverage Maximization with QoS Support for Ring-Based WMN
            1. 1. Problem Formulation
            2. 2. MINLP Optimization Approach
        3. Performance Evaluations for Cluster-Based WMN and Ring-Based WMN
      6. SUMMARY
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 24. Towards Designing High-Throughput Routing Metrics for Wireless Mesh Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background on Hybrid routing
        2. Design Criteria for High-Throughput Routing Metrics
        3. Review of Routing Metrics for WMN
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
  11. 6. Future
    1. 25. Quality of Service (QoS) Provisioning in Cognitive Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Architecture, Open Issues and Design Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Spectrum Allocation Policy
        2. Cognitive radio Networks
        3. Cognition Cycle
        4. Quality of Service Architecture
        5. Next-Steps in Signaling (NSIS) Framework
      4. C2NET: A CROSS-LAYER QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR COGNITIVE WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
        1. A QoS Architecture Based on NSIS Framework
        2. The Cross-Layer Paradigm
          1. Joint Dynamic Channel Selection and Topology Management
      5. DESIGN APPROACHES
      6. CONTEXT-AWARENESS AND INTELLIGENCE AS THE KEY SOLUTIONS TO OPEN ISSUES IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS
        1. Application of Context-Awareness and iNtelligence in Addressing Open issues in Cognitive Radio Networks
      7. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AS A DECISION MODEL TO ACHIEVE CONTEXT-AWARENESS AND INTELLIGENCE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 26. Evolution of QoS Control in Next Generation Mobile Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QOS CONTROL IN WIRELESS NETWORKS 3G (THIRD GENERATION)
        1. ITU-T QoS Specifications
        2. QoS in UMTS
        3. QoS in CDMA 2000
        4. QoS in Long Term Evolution
      4. QOS CONTROL FOR WIRELESS (NON-CELLULAR) NETWORKS WI-FI
        1. WiMAX
      5. CONVERGENCE OF QOS CONTROL
        1. Integration of Heterogeneous Networks
        2. End-to-End Assurance
        3. Vertical Handover and QoS
      6. CONVERGENT QOS NGMN ARCHITECTURE
        1. Policy and Charging Control Architecture
        2. Evolved Packet Core
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors