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Quality of Service for Internet Multimedia

Book Description

Continuous media applications have exceptionally stringent QoS requirements, and QoS for multimedia will remain a challenge well into the future. The solution begins with service-differentiated networks capable of providing appropriate grades of service to each application. This book takes the next step, showing how continuous media applications and QoS-enabled networks can interact, and offering a leading-edge framework in which applications and the network can cooperatively optimize end-to-end QoS.

Coverage includes:

  • New video-categorization schemes for assigning video-packet-to-network differentiated service classes

  • Adaptive packet-forwarding mechanisms that improve cooperation between multimedia applications and networks

  • Dynamic QoS mapping-control schemes that let DiffServ networks deliver variable media streams with consistent quality

  • Fine-Grained Scalable MPEG-4-based video streamingoseamlessly integrating rate adaptation, prioritized packetization, and loss-based differential forwarding

  • Joint-source-network approach: layered video combining application-level UEP with network-level QoS support

  • New network service models for layered video multicasting across DiffServ networks

  • Whether you're a multimedia researcher, designer, developer, or implementer, these advanced techniques can help you optimize performance, content categorization, and quality control.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. IMSC Press Multimedia Series
    3. Integrated Media Systems Center
    4. Preface
    5. 1. Introduction
      1. 1.1. Significance of the Research
      2. 1.2. Scope of the Research
        1. 1.2.1. End-System’s QoS Support
        2. 1.2.2. QoS Provision via Network Support
        3. 1.2.3. QoS Interaction Between End-Systems and QoS-Enabled Networks
      3. 1.3. Contribution of the Research
      4. 1.4. Outline of this Book
    6. 2. Quality of Service (QoS) Provision: An Overview
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. QoS Performance Parameters
      3. 2.3. IP-Based QoS-Providing Mechanisms
        1. 2.3.1. RSVP/Integrated Services (IntServ)
        2. 2.3.2. Multi-Layer Label Switching
        3. 2.3.3. QoS Routing
        4. 2.3.4. DiffServ Network Support for QoS Provision
      4. 2.4. Architectural Model for Differentiated Services
        1. 2.4.1. Packet Classification
        2. 2.4.2. Traffic Conditioning
        3. 2.4.3. Queue Management
        4. 2.4.4. Scheduling
        5. 2.4.5. Admission Control
      5. 2.5. Service Differentiation for Proper QoS Provision
        1. 2.5.1. Absolute Service Differentiation
          1. Assured Fairness and Target Rate Services
          2. Guaranteed Delay/Jitter Service
        2. 2.5.2. Relative Service Differentiation
        3. 2.5.3. Quantitative Service Differentiation
      6. 2.6. Approaches to Increasing Service Assurance and Quality
        1. 2.6.1. Inter-Domain Resource Allocation
        2. 2.6.2. Stateless Core Architecture with Intelligent Boundary Node
        3. 2.6.3. Intra-Domain Behavior Control
        4. 2.6.4. Inter-Operation Among Integrated and Differentiated Services
        5. 2.6.5. Multicasting in DiffServ Networks
        6. 2.6.6. QoS Interaction Between CM Applications and DiffServ Networks
          1. Spatial/Temporal Loss Propagation
          2. Layered or Scalable Coding
          3. QoS Mapping of Application Requirements into Network DiffServ Levels
    7. 3. General QoS Mapping Framework
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Overall Proposed QoS Mapping Framework in a DiffServ Network
        1. 3.2.1. Overall QoS Mapping Framework
        2. 3.2.2. Deployment Issues
      3. 3.3. Video Packet Categorization Based on the Relative Priority Index (RPI)
        1. 3.3.1. Desired Characteristics for Prioritization
        2. 3.3.2. Macroblock-Level Corruption Model
          1. Investigation of Macroblock Error Propagation
          2. Derivation of MB-Level Corruption Model
        3. 3.3.3. Simplified RLI Association and Categorization
      4. 3.4. QoS Mapping Problem Formulation and Solution
        1. 3.4.1. QoS Mapping Problem Formulation
        2. 3.4.2. Ideal Case for Per-Flow QoS Mapping
      5. 3.5. Experimental Results
        1. 3.5.1. Experimental Setting Through the Two-State Markov Model for the Ideal Case
        2. 3.5.2. Performance of Optimal QoS Mapping in the Ideal Case
      6. 3.6. Conclusions
    8. 4. Packet-Forwarding Mechanism with Static QoS Mapping
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Stable and Persistent Service Differentiation Based on Active Queue Management (AQM) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
      3. 4.3. QoS Mapping Scenarios
        1. 4.3.1. Single-Queue (SQ) Scenario with RLI Prioritization
        2. 4.3.2. Multiple-Queue (MQ) Scenario with RLI Prioritization
        3. 4.3.3. MQ Scenario with Both RLI and RDI
      4. 4.4. Experimental Results
        1. 4.4.1. SQ System with RLI
        2. 4.4.2. MQ System with RLI
        3. 4.4.3. MQ System with Both RLI and RDI
      5. 4.5. Conclusions
    9. 5. Dynamic QoS Mapping Control for CM Streaming
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Proposed QoS Mapping Control Architecture
      3. 5.3. Dynamic QoS Mapping Mechanism for Aggregated Flows
        1. 5.3.1. Dynamic Feedforward QoS Mapping Control
          1. Session-/Packet-Based Feedforward QoS Mapping Control
          2. Traffic Conditioning for Class-Based Granularity
        2. 5.3.2. Dynamic Feedback QoS Mapping Control
      4. 5.4. An Analysis of the Aggregated Traffic Marker
        1. 5.4.1. Isolated trTCM Case
        2. 5.4.2. Proposed Interconnected trTCM Case
      5. 5.5. Performance Evaluations
        1. 5.5.1. Simple Comparison Between Isolated and Interconnected trTCMs
        2. 5.5.2. Dynamic QoS Mapping Control
          1. Feedforward QoS Mapping Control at a VG with Interconnected trTCM
          2. Feedback QoS Mapping Control Effect
      6. 5.6. Conclusions
    10. 6. Source Priority Packetization and Rate Adaptation for MPEG-4 Video
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Overview of the Proposed System
      3. 6.3. Detailed Components of Proposed Systems
        1. 6.3.1. Rate Adaptation with Scalable Coding
        2. 6.3.2. Prioritized Packetization
        3. 6.3.3. Differentiated Forwarding
      4. 6.4. Experimental Results
        1. 6.4.1. Scenario 1: Differentiated Forwarding of BL Packets
        2. 6.4.2. Scenario 2: Differentiated Forwarding of EL Packets
        3. 6.4.3. Impact of Packet Priority Distribution on UEP Gain
      5. 6.5. Conclusions
    11. 7. Video Streaming Using FEC Over QoS-Controlled Networks
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Background
        1. 7.2.1. Scalable or Layered and Error-Resilient Video Coding with Loss Control (Source Side)
        2. 7.2.2. QoS-Controlled Network (Network Side)
      3. 7.3. JSN Approach
        1. 7.3.1. Using a Reservation-Based Network
        2. 7.3.2. Using a Service Differentiation Network
      4. 7.4. Analysis of Proposed JSN
        1. 7.4.1. Method of Changing DS Levels
        2. 7.4.2. Method of Splitting Application Source Data
        3. 7.4.3. Analysis of Data Splitting with Total Cost Constraint
      5. 7.5. Performance Evaluations
        1. 7.5.1. Performance Metrics for End-to-End Video Quality Peak
        2. 7.5.2. JSN Adaptations in IntServ/RSVP
        3. 7.5.3. JSN Adaptations in DiffServ
          1. The Case of Changing DS Levels
          2. The Case of Splitting Data in Video Packets (VPs)
      6. 7.6. Conclusions
    12. 8. Enhanced Service Differentiation for Layered Video Multicast
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Receiver-Driven Layered Multicast (RLM) and DiffServ Networks
      3. 8.3. Enhanced AQM for Join Experiment
        1. 8.3.1. Confined Averaged Queue Length
        2. 8.3.2. Virtual Queue Limit
        3. 8.3.3. Weighted RIO
      4. 8.4. Hierarchical Priority Marking on Layered Video
        1. 8.4.1. Sender-Driven Marking
        2. 8.4.2. Receiver-Driven Marking
      5. 8.5. Experimental Results
        1. 8.5.1. Join Experiment
        2. 8.5.2. Packet Loss and Service Differentiability
      6. 8.6. Conclusions
    13. 9. Conclusions
    14. Bibliography