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Qos-Enabled Networks: Tools and Foundations

Book Description

With a foreword by Kannan Kothandaraman

"This is the first book about QOS that I actually enjoyed reading precisely because the authors focused on real-life QoS and not in academic discussions about it."

Per Nihlen, IP Network Manager, NORDUnet

The new authoritative, practical guide to delivering QOS guarantees

This new benchmark in quality of service (QOS) study is written by two experts in the field who deal with QOS predicaments every day. The authors not only provide a lucid understanding of modern theory of QOS mechanisms in packet networks but how to apply them in practice. In addition, they detail the QOS management features found in modern routers used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and large enterprise companies and networks, all in an effort to enable network managers and engineers to configure production networks with a quality of service guarantee. The book's focus on addressing network behavior ("real effects") in relation to the configuration of network elements (routers and switches), is both refreshing and insightful.

QOS-Enabled Networkscontains up-to-date coverage of:

  • QOS mechanisms in packet networks and how to apply them in practice

  • QOS management features now common in modern-day routers

  • How network behavior is related to configuration of network elements

  • Layer 2 VPN and QOS

  • QOS in mobile LTE networks

QOS-Enabled Networks is an invaluable guide for networking engineers needing to provide QOS services for service providers, ISPs and large enterprises, as well as for network design and operations engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. About the Authors
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Abbreviations
  10. Part One: The QOS Realm
    1. 1 The QOS World
      1. 1.1 Operation and Signaling
      2. 1.2 Standards and Per-Hop Behavior
      3. 1.3 Traffic Characterization
      4. 1.4 A Router Without QOS
      5. 1.5 Conclusion
    2. 2 The QOS Tools
      1. 2.1 Classifiers and Classes of Service
      2. 2.2 Metering and Coloring – CIR/PIR Model
      3. 2.3 The Policer Tool
      4. 2.4 The Shaper Function
      5. 2.5 Comparing Policing and Shaping
      6. 2.6 Queue
      7. 2.7 The Scheduler
      8. 2.8 The Rewrite Tool
      9. 2.9 Example of Combining Tools
      10. 2.10 Delay and Jitter Insertion
      11. 2.11 Packet Loss
      12. 2.12 Conclusion
    3. 3 Challenges
      1. 3.1 Defining the Classes of Service
      2. 3.2 Classes of Service and Queues Mapping
      3. 3.3 Inherent Delay Factors
      4. 3.4 Congestion Points
      5. 3.5 Trust Borders
      6. 3.6 Granularity Levels
      7. 3.7 Control Traffic
      8. 3.8 Trust, Granularity, and Control Traffic
      9. 3.9 Conclusion
    4. 4 Traffic Types
      1. 4.1 Anatomy of the TCP Protocol
      2. 4.2 The TCP Session
      3. 4.3 TCP Congestion Mechanism
      4. 4.4 TCP Congestion Scenario
      5. 4.5 PMTU
      6. 4.6 QOS Conclusions for TCP
      7. 4.7 Real-Time Traffic
      8. 4.8 Anatomy of Real-Time Traffic
      9. 4.9 RTP
      10. 4.10 VOIP
      11. 4.11 QOS Conclusions for VOIP
      12. 4.12 IPTV
      13. 4.13 Long-lasting versus Short-lived Sessions
      14. 4.14 Example of Internet Radio/Video
      15. 4.15 Example of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Applications
      16. 4.16  Discovering P2P on the Network
      17. 4.17 Illegal File Sharing and Copyright Violation
      18. 4.18 QOS Conclusions for New Internet Applications
  11. Part Two: Tools
    1. 5 Classifiers
      1. 5.1 Packet QOS Markings
      2. 5.2 Inbound Interface Information
      3. 5.3 Deep Packet Inspection
      4. 5.4 Selecting Classifiers
      5. 5.5 The QOS Network Perspective
      6. 5.6 MPLS DiffServ-TE
      7. 5.7 Mixing Different QOS Realms
      8. 5.8 Conclusion
    2. 6 Policing and Shaping
      1. 6.1 Token Buckets
      2. 6.2 Traffic Bursts
      3. 6.3 Dual-Rate Token Buckets
      4. 6.4 Shapers and Leaky Buckets
      5. 6.5 Excess Traffic and Oversubscription
      6. 6.6 Comparing and Applying Policer and Shaper Tools
      7. 6.7 Conclusion
    3. 7 Queuing and Scheduling
      1. 7.1 Queuing and Scheduling Concepts
      2. 7.2 Packets and Cellification
      3. 7.3 Different Types of Queuing Disciplines
      4. 7.4 FIFO – First in, First out
      5. 7.5 Fair Queuing
      6. 7.6 Priority Queuing
      7. 7.7 Weighted Fair Queuing
      8. 7.8 Weighted Round Robin
      9. 7.9 Deficit Weighted Round Robin
      10. 7.10 Priority-Based Deficit Weighted Round Robin
      11. 7.11 Conclusions about the Best Queuing Discipline
    4. 8 Advanced Queuing Topics
      1. 8.1 Hierarchical Scheduling
      2. 8.2 Queues Lengths and Buffer Size
      3. 8.3 Dynamically Sized versus Fixed-Size Queue Buffers
      4. 8.4 RED – Random Early Discard
      5. 8.5 Using RED with TCP Sessions
      6. 8.6 Differentiating Traffic Inside a Queue with WRED
      7. 8.7 Head versus Tail RED
      8. 8.8 Segmented and Interpolated RED Profiles
      9. 8.9 Conclusion
  12. Part Three: Case Studies
    1. 9 The VPLS Case Study
      1. 9.1 High-Level Case Study Overview
      2. 9.2 Virtual Private Networks
      3. 9.3 Service Overview
      4. 9.4 Service Technical Implementation
      5. 9.5 Network Internals
      6. 9.6 Classes of Service and Queue Mapping
      7. 9.7 Classification and Trust Borders
      8. 9.8 Admission Control
      9. 9.9 Rewrite Rules
      10. 9.10 Absorbing Traffic Bursts at the Egress
      11. 9.11 Queues and Scheduling at Core-Facing Interfaces
      12. 9.12 Queues and Scheduling at Customer-Facing Interfaces
      13. 9.13 Tracing a Packet Through the Network
      14. 9.14 Adding More Services
      15. 9.15 Multicast Traffic
      16. 9.16 Using Bandwidth Reservations
      17. 9.17 Conclusion
    2. 10 Case Study IP RAN and Mobile Backhaul QOS
      1. 10.1 Evolution from 2G to 4G
      2. 10.2 2G Network Components
      3. 10.3 Traffic on 2G Networks
      4. 10.4 3G Network Components
      5. 10.5 Traffic on 3G Networks
      6. 10.6 LTE Network Components
      7. 10.7 LTE Traffic Types
      8. 10.8 LTE Traffic Classes
      9. 10.9 Conclusion
    3. 11 Conclusion
  13. Index