O'Reilly logo

Python Pocket Reference, Second Edition by Mark Lutz

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Built-in Types and Operators

Operators and Precedence

Table 1-1 lists Python’s expression operators. Operators in the lower cells of this table have higher precedence (i.e., bind tighter) when used in mixed-operator expressions without parentheses.

Table 1-1. Expression operators and precedence

Operators

Description

lambda args: expr

Anonymous function maker

X or Y

Logical OR: Y is evaluated only if X is false

X and Y

Logical AND: Y is evaluated only if X is true

not X

Logical negation

X < Y, X <= Y, X > Y, 
X >= Y, X == Y, X <> Y, 
X != Y, X is Y, X is not Y, 
X in S, X not in S

Comparison operators,[a] equality operators, inequality operators, object identity tests, sequence membership

X | Y

Bitwise OR

X ^ Y

Bitwise exclusive OR

X & Y

Bitwise AND

X << Y, X >> Y

Shift X left, right by Y bits

X + Y, X—Y

Addition/concatenation, subtraction

X * Y, X % Y,
X / Y, X // Y

Multiply/repetition, remainder/format, division, floor division[b]

-X, +X, ~X, X**Y

Unary negation, identity, bitwise complement, power

X[i], X[i:j], 
X.attr, X(...)

Indexing, slicing, attribute references, function calls

(...), [...], {...}, `...`

Tuple, list,[c] dictionary, conversion to string[d]

[a] Comparison operators may be chained: x < y < z is similar to x < y and y < z, except that y is evaluated only once in the first format.

[b] Floor division (X // Y), new in 2.2, always truncates fractional remainders. Classic division (X / Y) truncates integer division results in 2.2 but will ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required