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Python Essential Reference, Second Edition by David M Beazley

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Operations on Sequences

The following operators can be applied to sequence types, including strings, lists, and tuples:

Operation Description
s + r Concatenation
s * n , n * s Makes n copies of s , where n is an integer
s % d String formatting (strings only)
s [i ] Indexing
s [i :j ] Slicing
x in s , x not in s Membership
for x in s : Iteration
len(s ) Length
min(s ) Minimum item
max(s ) Maximum item

The + operator concatenates two sequences of the same type. The s * n operator makes n copies of a sequence. However, these are shallow copies that replicate elements by reference only. For example, consider the following code:

 a = [3,4,5] # A list b = [a] # A list containing a c = 4*b # Make four copies of b # Now modify a a[0] == ...

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