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Pulse and Digital Circuits

Book Description

Pulse and Digital Circuits is designed to cater to the needs of undergraduate students of electronics and communication engineering. Written in a lucid, student-friendly style, it covers key topics in the area of pulse and digital circuits. This is an introductory text that discusses the basic concepts involved in the design, operation and analysis of waveshaping circuits. The book includes a preliminary chapter that reviews the concepts needed to understand the subject matter. Each concept in the book is accompanied by self-explanatory circuit diagrams. Interspersed with numerous solved problems, the text presents detailed analysis of key concepts. Multivibrators and sweep generators are covered in great detail in the book.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. 1. An Introduction to Pulse Waveforms
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Current and Voltage Sources
    3. 1.3 Network Laws
      1. 1.3.1 Kirchoff’s Laws
      2. 1.3.2 The Superposition Theorem
      3. 1.3.3 Thévenin’s Theorem
      4. 1.3.4 Norton’s Theorem
    4. 1.4 Devices, Characteristics and Applications
      1. 1.4.1 Diodes
      2. 1.4.2 Bipolar Junction Transistors
      3. 1.4.3 Amplifiers
      4. 1.4.4 The Three Basic Amplifiers
      5. 1.4.5 Multi-stage Amplifiers
      6. 1.4.6 Feedback in Amplifiers
      7. 1.4.7 Noise
    5. 1.5 Operational Amplifiers
    6. 1.6 Oscillators
    7. 1.7 CC Amplifier as a Power Amplifier
    8. 1.8 Miller’s Theorem
      1. 1.8.1 The Dual of Miller’s Theorem
    9. 1.9 Ground in a Circuit
    10. 1.10 Stray Capacitances in Devices
    11. 1.11 Field-effect Transistors
    12. 1.12 Characteristics of Pulse Waveforms
      1. 1.12.1 Types of Waveforms Used in Pulse Circuits
      2. 1.12.2 Energy Storage Elements
    13. 1.13 Laplace Transforms
      1. 1.13.1 Basic Properties of Laplace Transformation
  7. 2. Linear Waveshaping: High-pass Circuits
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 High-pass Circuits
      1. 2.2.1 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Sinusoidal Input
      2. 2.2.2 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Step Input
      3. 2.2.3 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Pulse Input
      4. 2.2.4 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Square-wave Input
      5. 2.2.5 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Exponential Input
      6. 2.2.6 Response of the High-pass RC Circuit to Ramp Input
    3. 2.3 Differentiators
      1. 2.3.1 A High-pass RC Circuit as a Differentiator
      2. 2.3.2 An Op-amp as a Differentiator
      3. 2.3.3 Double Differentiators
    4. 2.4 The Response of a High-pass RL Circuit to Step Input
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  8. 3. Linear Waveshaping: Low-pass Circuits, Attenuators and RLC Circuits
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Low-pass Circuits
      1. 3.2.1 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to Sinusoidal Input
      2. 3.2.2 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to Step Input
      3. 3.2.3 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to Pulse Input
      4. 3.2.4 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to a Square-wave Input
      5. 3.2.5 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to Exponential Input
      6. 3.2.6 The Response of a Low-pass RC Circuit to Ramp Input
      7. 3.2.7 A Low-pass RC Circuit as an Integrator
      8. 3.2.8 An Op-amp as an Integrator
      9. 3.2.9 Low-pass RL Circuits
    3. 3.3 Attenuators
      1. 3.3.1 Uncompensated Attenuators
      2. 3.3.2 Compensated Attenuators
    4. 3.4 RLC Circuits
      1. 3.4.1 The Response of the RLC Parallel Circuit to a Step Input
      2. 3.4.2 The Response of the RLC Series Circuit to a Step Input
      3. 3.4.3 RLC Ringing Circuits
      4. Summary
      5. Multiple Choice Questions
      6. Short Answer Questions
      7. Long Answer Questions
      8. Unsolved Problems
  9. 4. Non-linear Waveshaping: Clipping Circuits and Comparators
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Diodes as Switches
      1. 4.2.1 The Semiconductor Diode as a Switch
      2. 4.2.2 The Zener Diode as a Switch
    3. 4.3 Clipping Circuits
      1. 4.3.1 Series Clippers
      2. 4.3.2 Shunt Clippers
      3. 4.3.3 Two-level Clippers
      4. 4.3.4 Noise Clippers
    4. 4.4 Comparators
      1. 4.4.1 Diode Comparators
      2. 4.4.2 The Double Differentiator as a Comparator
    5. 4.5 Applications of Comparators
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  10. 5. Non-linear Waveshaping: Clamping Circuits
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The Clamping Circuit
      1. 5.2.1 The Clamping Circuit for Varying Input Amplitude
      2. 5.2.2 The Practical Clamping Circuit
      3. 5.2.3 Clamping the Output to a Reference Voltage (VR)
      4. 5.2.4 The Design of a Clamping Circuit
    3. 5.3 The Effect of Diode Characteristics on the Clamping Voltage
    4. 5.4 Synchronized Clamping
    5. 5.5 The Clamping Circuit Theorem
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  11. 6. Switching Characteristics of Devices
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The Diode as a Switch
      1. 6.2.1 Diode Characteristics
      2. 6.2.2 Transition Capacitance
      3. 6.2.3 Diffusion Capacitance
      4. 6.2.4 Junction Diode Switching Times
      5. 6.2.5 Piecewise Linear Diode Model
      6. 6.2.6 Breakdown Diodes
    3. 6.3 The Transistor as a Switch
      1. 6.3.1 The Transistor as an Open Switch
      2. 6.3.2 The Transistor as a Closed Switch
      3. 6.3.3 Over-driven Transistor Switches
      4. 6.3.4 The Design of a Transistor Inverter
    4. 6.4 Switching Times of a Transistor
      1. 6.4.1 The Turn-on Time of a Transistor
      2. 6.4.2 The Turn-off Time of a Transistor
    5. 6.5 Breakdown Voltages
      1. 6.5.1 The CE Configuration
      2. 6.5.2 The Breakdown Voltage with Base Not Open Circuited
    6. 6.6 The Saturation Parameters of a Transistor and their Variation with Temperature
    7. 6.7 Latching in a Transistor Switch
    8. 6.8 Transistor Switches with Complex Loads
      1. 6.8.1 Switches with Inductive Loads
      2. 6.8.2 Switches with Capacitive Loads
      3. Summary
      4. Multiple Choice Questions
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Long Answer Questions
      7. Unsolved Problems
  12. 7. Astable Multivibrators
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Collector-coupled Astable Multivibrators
      1. 7.2.1 Calculation of the Frequency of an Astable Multivibrator
      2. 7.2.2 The Design of an Astable Multivibrator
      3. 7.2.3 An Astable Multivibrator with Vertical Edges for Collector Waveforms
    3. 7.3 An Astable Multivibrator as a Voltage-controlled Oscillator
    4. 7.4 An Astable Multivibrator as a Frequency Modulator
    5. 7.5 Emitter-coupled Astable Multivibrators
      1. 7.5.1 Advantages of Emitter-coupled Astable Multivibrators
      2. 7.5.2 Disadvantages of Emitter-coupled Astable Multivibrators
      3. Summary
      4. Multiple Choice Questions
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Long Answer Questions
      7. Unsolved Problems
  13. 8. Monostable Multivibrators
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Collector-coupled Monostable Multivibrators
      1. 8.2.1 Triggering a Monostable Multivibrator
      2. 8.2.2 Calculation of the Time Period (T)
      3. 8.2.3 The Effect of Temperature on Gate Width
    3. 8.3 Calculation of the Voltages to Plot the Waveforms
      1. 8.3.1 In the Stable State (t < 0)
      2. 8.3.2 In the Quasi-stable State (t = 0+)
      3. 8.3.3 At the End of the Quasi-stable State (at t = T +)
      4. 8.3.4 The Design of a Collector-coupled Monostable Multivibrator
    4. 8.4 Commutating Condensers
      1. 8.4.1 Calculation of the Value of the Commutating Condenser
      2. 8.4.2 A Monostable Multivibrator as a Voltage-to-time Converter
    5. 8.5 Emitter-coupled Monostable Multivibrators
      1. 8.5.1 To Calculate the Gate Width (T)
      2. 8.5.2 To Calculate the Voltages
      3. 8.5.3 The Design of an Emitter-coupled Monostable Multivibrator
      4. 8.5.4 Free-running Operation of an Emitter-coupled Monostable Multivibrator
      5. Summary
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Long Answer Questions
      9. Unsolved Problems
  14. 9. Bistable Multivibrators
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Bistable Multivibrator Circuits
      1. 9.2.1 Fixed-bias Bistable Multivibrators
      2. 9.2.2 The Resolution Time and the Maximum Switching Speed of a Bistable Multivibrator
      3. 9.2.3 Methods of Triggering a Bistable Multivibrator
      4. 9.2.4 Non-saturating Bistable Multivibrators
    3. 9.3 Self-bias Bistable Multivibrators
      1. 9.3.1 The Heaviest Load Driven by a Self-bias Bistable Multivibrator
      2. 9.3.2 The Design of a Self-bias Bistable Multivibrator
    4. 9.4 Schmitt Triggers
      1. 9.4.1 Calculation of the Upper Trip Point (V1)
      2. 9.4.2 Calculation of the Lower Trip Point (V2)
      3. 9.4.3 Methods to Eliminate Hysteresis in a Schmitt Trigger
      4. 9.4.4 Applications of a Schmitt Trigger
      5. 9.4.5 The Design of a Schmitt Trigger
      6. Summary
      7. Multiple Choice Questions
      8. Short Answer Questions
      9. Long Answer Questions
      10. Unsolved Problems
  15. 10. Logic Gates
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Logic Gates
      1. 10.2.1 Simple Diode Gates
      2. 10.2.2 Resistor–Transistor Logic Gates
      3. 10.2.3 Diode−Transistor Logic Gates
    3. 10.3 Factors Defining the Performance of Logic Gates
    4. 10.4 Positive Logic, Negative Logic and Logic Circuit Conversion
      1. 10.4.1 Transistor–Transistor Logic Gates
      2. 10.4.2 PMOS and NMOS Logic Gates
      3. 10.4.3 Complementary MOSFET Logic Gates
      4. 10.4.4 Interfacing of Logic Gates
      5. Summary
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Long Answer Questions
      9. Unsolved Problems
  16. 11. Sampling Gates
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Unidirectional Diode Gates
      1. 11.2.1 Unidirectional Diode Gates to Transmit Positive Pulses
      2. 11.2.2 Unidirectional Diode Gates
      3. 11.2.3 A Unidirectional Diode Gate to Transmit Negative Pulses
    3. 11.3 Bidirectional Sampling Gates
      1. 11.3.1 Single-transistor Bidirectional Sampling Gates
      2. 11.3.2 Two-transistor Bidirectional Sampling Gates
      3. 11.3.3 A Two-transistor Bidirectional Sampling Gate that Reduces the Pedestal
      4. 11.3.4 A Two-diode Bridge Type Bidirectional Sampling Gate that Eliminates the Pedestal
      5. 11.3.5 Four-diode Gates
      6. 11.3.6 Six-diode Gates
    4. 11.4 FET Sampling Gates
      1. 11.4.1 FET Series Gates
      2. 11.4.2 FET Shunt Gates
      3. 11.4.3 Op-amps as Sampling Gates
    5. 11.5 Applications of Sampling Gates
      1. 11.5.1 Chopper Stabilized Amplifiers
      2. 11.5.2 Sampling Scopes
      3. 11.5.3 Multiplexers
      4. Summary
      5. Multiple Choice Questions
      6. Short Answer Questions
      7. Long Answer Questions
      8. Unsolved Problems
  17. 12. Voltage Sweep Generators
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Exponential Sweep Generators
      1. 12.2.1 A Voltage Sweep Generator Using a UJT
      2. 12.2.2 Generation of Linear Sweep Using the CB Configuration
    3. 12.3 Improving Sweep Linearity
      1. 12.3.1 Miller Integrator Sweep Generators
      2. 12.3.2 Bootstrap Sweep Generators
      3. Summary
      4. Multiple Choice Questions
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Long Answer Questions
      7. Unsolved Problems
  18. 13. Current Sweep Generators
    1. 13.1 Introduction
      1. 13.1.1 A Simple Current Sweep Generator
      2. 13.1.2 Linearity Correction through Adjustment of the Driving Waveform
    2. 13.2 A Transistor Television Sweep Circuit
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  19. 14. Blocking Oscillators
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Monostable Blocking Oscillators
      1. 14.2.1 A Triggered Transistor Monostable Blocking Oscillator (Base Timing)
      2. 14.2.2 A Triggered Transistor Blocking Oscillator (Emitter Timing)
    3. 14.3 Astable Blocking Oscillators
      1. 14.3.1 Diode-controlled Astable Blocking Oscillators
      2. 14.3.2 RC-controlled Astable Blocking Oscillators
      3. 14.3.3 Effect of Core Saturation on Pulse Width
      4. 14.3.4 Applications of Blocking Oscillators
      5. Summary
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Short Answer Questions
      8. Long Answer Questions
      9. Unsolved Problems
  20. 15. Synchronization and Frequency Division
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Pulse Synchronization of Relaxation Devices
      1. 15.2.1 Frequency Division in a Sweep Circuit
    3. 15.3 Synchronization of Other Relaxation Circuits
      1. 15.3.1 Synchronization of Astable Blocking Oscillators
      2. 15.3.2 Synchronization of Transistor Astable Multivibrators
      3. 15.3.3 Synchronization with Division of an Astable Multivibrator by Applying Negative Pulses at both the Bases (B1 and B2)
      4. 15.3.4 Positive Pulses Applied to B1 Through a Small Capacitor from a Low-impedance Source
    4. 15.4 A Monostable Multivibrator as a Divider
      1. 15.4.1 A Relaxation Divider that Eliminates Phase Jitter
    5. 15.5 Synchronization of a Sweep Circuit with Symmetrical Signals
      1. 15.5.1 Frequency Division with Symmetric Sync Signals
      2. Summary
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Short Answer Questions
      5. Long Answer Questions
      6. Unsolved Problems
  21. 16. Op-amps, 555 Timers and Negative Resistance Devices in Switching Applications
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Operational Amplifiers
      1. 16.2.1 Some Applications of an Operational Amplifier
      2. 16.2.2 Monostable Multivibrators
      3. 16.2.3 Astable Multivibrators
      4. 16.2.4 An Astable Multivibrator Using an Operational Amplifier Without Zener Diodes
      5. 16.2.5 A Schmitt Trigger Using an Operational Amplifier
      6. 16.2.6 Miller Integrator Time-base Generators Using Operational Amplifiers
      7. 16.2.7 A Bootstrap Time-base Generator Using an Operational Amplifier
    3. 16.3 555 Timer Applications
      1. 16.3.1 Monostable Circuits Using 555 Timers
      2. 16.3.2 555 Astable Multivibrators
      3. 16.3.3 Schmitt Trigger Circuits
    4. 16.4 Tunnel Diodes
      1. 16.4.1 A Monostable Circuit Using a Tunnel Diode
      2. 16.4.2 An Astable Multivibrator Circuit Using a Tunnel Diode
      3. 16.4.3 A Bistable Multivibrator Using a Tunnel Diode
    5. 16.5 A Four-layer p−n−p−n Diode
      1. 16.5.1 p−n−p−n Diode in a Monostable Circuit
      2. 16.5.2 An Astable Multivibrator Using a p−n−p−n Diode (Voltage Sweep Generator)
      3. 16.5.3 A Bistable Multivibrator Using a p−n−p−n Diode
    6. 16.6 Unijunction Transistors
      1. 16.6.1 An Astable Multivibrator Using a UJT
      2. 16.6.2 A Bistable Multivibrator Using a UJT
      3. Summary
      4. Multiple Choice Questions
      5. Short Answer Questions
      6. Long Answer Questions
      7. Unsolved Problems
  22. 17. Combinational Circuits: Implementation and Design
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Boolean Algebra
      1. 17.2.1 AND Operation
      2. 17.2.2 OR Operation
      3. 17.2.3 Complementation or Inversion
    3. 17.3 Realization of Boolean Functions Using Switches and Logic Gates
    4. 17.4 Theorems
      1. 17.4.1 Dual and Complementary Functions
      2. 17.4.2 Boolean Algebraic Properties
    5. 17.5 Simplification of Boolean Functions
    6. 17.6 De Morgan’s Laws
    7. 17.7 Boolean Expressions in Sum of Products (SOP) Form and in Product of Sums (POS) Form
      1. 17.7.1 The Expansion of a Boolean Expression to the SOP Form
      2. 17.7.2 The Expansion of a Boolean Expression to the POS Form
      3. 17.7.3 Conversion from One Form to the Other
    8. 17.8 Universal Gates
      1. 17.8.1 Implementing a NOT Gate Using NAND Gates
      2. 17.8.2 Implementing an AND Gate Using NAND Gates
      3. 17.8.3 Implementing an OR Gate Using NAND Gates
      4. 17.8.4 Implementing a NOT Gate Using NOR Gates
      5. 17.8.5 Implementing an AND Gate Using NOR Gates
      6. 17.8.6 Implementing an OR Gate Using NOR Gates
      7. 17.8.7 The Exclusive OR Gate
    9. 17.9 The Realization of Logic Functions Using NAND Gates
      1. 17.9.1 The Realization of Logic Functions Using NOR Gates
    10. 17.10 Karnaugh Maps
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  23. 18. Sequential Circuits: Flip-flops and Counters
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Flip-flops
      1. 18.2.1 The Basic RS-latch
      2. 18.2.2 The SR-latch Using NAND Gates
      3. 18.2.3 Positive Pulse Triggered SR Flip-flops
      4. 18.2.4 Clocked SR Flip-flops
      5. 18.2.5 JK Flip-flops
      6. 18.2.6 D Flip-flops
      7. 18.2.7 T Flip-flops
      8. 18.2.8 Master−Slave Flip-flops
      9. 18.2.9 JK Master−Slave Flip-flops
    3. 18.3 Excitation Tables
      1. 18.3.1 Flip-flop Conversions
    4. 18.4 Counters
      1. 18.4.1 Asynchronous Counters
      2. 18.4.2 Synchronous Counters
    5. 18.5 State Tables
      1. 18.5.1 State Diagrams
    6. 18.6 The Procedure to Design Counters
    7. 18.7 Modulus Counters
    8. 18.8 4-Bit Binary Up/Down Counters
      1. Summary
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Short Answer Questions
      4. Long Answer Questions
      5. Unsolved Problems
  24. Appendix A: Conversion Equations and Laplace Transforms
  25. Appendix B: Continuity Theorems in Network Analysis
  26. Bibliography
  27. Notes
  28. Acknowledgements
  29. Copyright