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Public Health and Welfare: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

The prevention and treatment of diseases is a primary concern for any nation in modern society. To maintain an effective public health system, procedures and infrastructure must be analyzed and enhanced accordingly. Public Health and Welfare: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research perspectives on public health initiatives and promotion efforts. Highlighting critical analyses and emerging innovations on an international scale, this book is a pivotal reference source for professionals, researchers, academics, practitioners, and students interested in the improvement of public health infrastructures.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editor-in-Chief
  5. Associate Editors
  6. Editorial Advisory Board
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: The Fundamentals of Health Literacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH LITERACY IN GLOBAL HEALTH CARE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: The Information Paradox
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATIVE APPROACH
      4. CONCEPTUALISING A UNIFIED DATABASE
      5. POLITICS OF INFORMATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 3: Health in MENA
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION
      3. HEALTH, EQUITY, AND DEVELOPMENT
      4. HEALTHCARE IN MENA: STRUCTURE AND FINANCING
      5. FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE
      6. MENA SYSTEMS IN A COMPARATIVE CONTEXT
      7. POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION: TIME FOR ACTION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
      12. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 4: Innovation in the Health System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HEALTH INNOVATION SYSTEMS
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. THE FIVE HEALTH LIPSs
      6. LEARNING, CAPACITY BUILDING AND INNOVATION IN HEALTH LIPSs
      7. THE INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION IN THE HEALTH SYSTEM
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 5: Infectious Diseases and Climate Vulnerability in Morocco
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELEVANT CLIMATE SENSITIVE INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN MOROCCO
      4. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES: THE CASE OF MOROCCO
      5. ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE FROM A HEALTH PERSPECTIVE: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
      6. MOROCCO’S ADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND OPTIONS NEEDED TO EFFECTIVELY MANAGE CLIMATE-HEALTH ISSUES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 6: Nurses, Healthcare, and Environmental Pollution and Solutions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OBJECTIVES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Health Policy Implementation and Its Barriers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
      4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHOD OF ANALYSIS
      6. HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION (RESOURCES OR INPUTS)
      7. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS IN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
      8. HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION (OUTPUTS/ OUTCOMES)
      9. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT IN HEALTH SYSTEM
      10. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 8: Antimicrobial Consumption and Multidrug Resistant Organisms in Intensive Care Units
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MECHANISMS OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE AND GENE DISSEMINATION
      5. MECHANISMS OF GENE DISSEMINATION
      6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIMICROBIAL CONSUMPTION AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
      7. THE ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION (ATC) SYSTEM AND DEFINED DAILY DOSE (DDD)
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. WAY FORWARD AND RECOMMENDATION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Genomics Applications in Public Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GENOMIC APPLICATIONS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
      4. PRECISION MEDICINE (THE P4 MEDICINE)
      5. IMPACT OF PRECISION (P4) MEDICINE
      6. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Modeling Energy Portfolio Scoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND APPROACH
      5. 4. POLICY ENVIRONMENT
      6. 5. THE FRAMEWORK
      7. 6. CASE STUDY
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: A Framework to Analyze Variation of the Satisfaction of Patients for Outpatient Needs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
      4. 3. RESULTS
      5. 4. DISCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 12: Promoting Health Literacy in Global Health Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SIGNIFICANT ASPECTS OF HEALTH LITERACY IN GLOBAL HEALTH CARE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Accountability and Public Reporting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PATIENT ENGAGEMENT AND QUALITY IN HEALTHCARE
      4. QUALITY IN HEALTHCARE
      5. ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY
      6. PUBLIC REPORTING IN HEALTHCARE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 14: The Role of Management Accounting Systems in Public Hospitals and the Construction of Budgets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RELEVANCE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE HEALTH CARE SECTOR
      4. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS AND BUDGETS
      5. RELEVANCE LOSS: TRADITIONAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES AND ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
      6. WHAT CONTRIBUTIONS HAVE BEEN MADE TO THE PORTUGUESE HEALTH SECTOR?
      7. FINAL REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 15: Laboratory Information Management Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LIMS BASIC FUNCTIONALITIES
      5. OTHER FUNCTIONALITIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 16: Developing SMS Health Messages for Pregnant Indigenous Australians Using Persuasive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 17: Health Information Technology and Quality Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONTROVERSIES AND PROBLEMS
      5. OVERVIEW OF CURRENT CHANGES
      6. BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FURTHER RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 18: Twitter and Its Role in Health Information Dissemination
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. GENERAL SECTOR CHARACTERISTICS
      6. TWEETING CHARACTERISTICS BY ORGANISATIONAL SECTOR
      7. PUBLIC HEALTH TWEETS AND THEIR DISSEMINATION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. LIMITATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 19: Health Information Technology and Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      5. UNDERSTANDING THE LEGAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATES TO CHANGE IN HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS AND HIT
      6. OVERVIEW OF CURRENT CHANGES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 20: On Piloting Web-Based Rabies Surveillance System for Humans and Animals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SITUATION ANALYSIS
      4. RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
      5. IMPORTANCE OF RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
      6. THE APPLICATION OF ICT IN RABIES SURVEILLANCE
      7. PILOTING WEB BASED RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM IN KILOSA DISTRICT
      8. REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ICT BASED RABIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
      9. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS
      10. SYSTEM DESIGN
      11. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
      12. DESCRIPTION OF USER INTERFACE AND THE SYSTEM IN GENERAL
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 21: Social Media and Alcohol Use
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
      5. CONNECTION BETWEEN SOCIAL MEDIA AND DRINKING: THE THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS
      6. SOCIAL MEDIA, ALCOHOL USE, AND SOCIAL OUTCOMES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 22: The Philippine Health Care Delivery System and Health Expenditure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PHILIPPINE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM
      4. HEALTH EXPENDITURE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 23: Socio-Technical Systems on the Move
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEM: AN OLD CONCEPT FOR A NEW KIND OF SYSTEMS
      4. PROVIDING GROUND FOR DEVELOPING AN STS FOR REGIONAL HEALTH CARE
      5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 24: Online Spatial HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Monitoring System for Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DSMS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 25: Early Warning System and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Extreme Weather Conditions and Air Pollution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS OF PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS OF AIR POLLUTION INFLUENCE ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY
      5. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION
      6. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION
      7. THE INFLUENCE OF METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS
      8. OBSERVATIONS AND RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGES
      9. THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AND ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON HEALTH
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 26: Identification of Associations between Clinical Signs and Hosts to Monitor the Web for Detection of Animal Disease Outbreaks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. OUR PROPOSED METHOD
      5. 4. MEASURE OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TERMS
      6. 5. EXPERIMENTS
      7. 6. RESULTS
      8. 7. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 3: Utilization and Applications
    1. Chapter 27: An Investigation of the Application of New Media and Its Impact on Taiwan Health Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. RESEARCH METHOD
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 28: Extending Care Outside of the Hospital Walls
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 29: The Analysis of Health Care Expenses of Turkey between 1990-2012
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AN ANALYSIS OF TURKEY’S HEALTH SPENDING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 30: The Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Various Dietary Practices and Intervention Possibilities to Reduce This Impact
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIETARY CHOICES AND GHG EMISSIONS
      5. INTERVENTION POSSIBILITIES TO REDUCE THE GHG IMPACT OF DIETARY CHOICES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 31: An Evaluation of Partnership for Productive Development in Brazil's Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OVERVIEW ON PUBLIC POLICIES IN BRAZIL'S HEALTHCARE
      4. 3. A BLUEPRINT TO MEASURE THE KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION
      5. 4. A DOUBLE-QUICK EVALUATION OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN BRAZIL
      6. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 32: Successful Integration of Knowledge for Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND PUBLIC HEALTH
      4. NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATION FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN BRAZIL
      5. CONCLUDING REMARK
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 33: Environmental Cost Studies and Their Application in Environmental Protection Planning for Electricity Production
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ENVIRONMENTAL COST STUDIES AND THEIR APPLICATION
      4. EXTERNAL COSTS OF ELECTRICITY
      5. REGIONAL ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 34: Doing Together
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SERVICES AS SOCIO-MATERIAL PRACTICES
      4. CO-CREATION OF SOCIO-MATERIAL PRACTICES
      5. CO-CREATION IN PRACTICE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 35: Culture of Learning Cities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH IN ADVANCING ENVIRONMENTS
      4. PERSONAL CARE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TO HEALTHY OUTCOMES
      5. CONFRONTING OBESITY, VIOLENCE, AND HEALTH CARE ACCESS
      6. LEISURE ENGAGEMENTS
      7. IMPACT OF LEISURE IN HEALTHY COMMUNITIES
      8. HEALTHY EXAMPLES OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND CRIME PREVENTION
      9. ENVIRONMENTS OF HEALTH THROUGH PARKS
      10. COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PARKS
      11. QUALITY OF LIFE AND PARK ACCESS OF USE
      12. CONTINUING EDUCATION: COMMUNITIES OF LIFELONG LEARNING
      13. DISCUSSION OF LIFELONG LEARNING, LEARNING CITIES, AND HEALTHY COMMUNITIES
      14. FUTURE ARRIVAL OF LEARNING CITIES FOR HEALTHY PARKS
      15. REFERENCES
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 36: Hunting HIV-Positive Women in Greece as Parasites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PERSECUTION OF HIV-POSITIVE WOMEN
      4. THE VIOLATION OF THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY OF HIV-POSITIVE WOMEN
      5. HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE AND DISCRIMINATION
      6. THE PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA IN AN EU’S FRAMEWORK
      7. GENDER, DOMINATION, AND MARGINALIZATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 37: Health Impact of Water-Related Diseases in Developing Countries on Account of Climate Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 38: A Study on Adoption of Employee Welfare Schemes in Industrial and Service Organisations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMPLOYEE WELFARE SCHEMES
      4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. LITERATURE REVIEW
      7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  11. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 39: Fostering Global Citizenship in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
      4. WHAT IS GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP?
      5. WHY IS GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP IMPORTANT TO GLOBAL HEALTH?
      6. HOW DO WE MEASURE GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP?
      7. HOW DO WE FOSTER GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP (AND GLOBAL HEALTH)?
      8. GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP AND SHORT-TERM STUDY ABROAD
      9. CASE STUDY: SHORT-TERM GLOBAL HEALTH COURSE
      10. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 40: Community Development and Faith-Based Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYSIS
      4. WHY FAITH-BASED ORGANISATIONS?
      5. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?
      6. HEALTHY STATES VS. FRAGILE AND FAILED STATES
      7. THE ROLE OF NON-STATE ACTORS
      8. RELIGION AND HEALTH
      9. FBO’S AND PUBLIC HEALTH
      10. CONCLUSION OF BACKGROUND
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR TIMOR LESTE
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 41: The Role of Average Health Status
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF HIA FOR IMPROVING POPULATION HEALTH
      4. THE ROLE OF THEORY
      5. THE ROLE OF AVERAGE HEALTH STATUS - HEALTH INEQUALITIES MATRIX
      6. ENHANCING VALIDITY FOR POLICIES AND INTERVENTIONS ON POPULATIONS
      7. KEY POINTS
      8. EXAMPLES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 42: Spatial Aspects of Mortality Rates and Neighborhood Environmental Characteristics in Seoul Mega City Region, South Korea
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. ANALYSIS AND DATA
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 43: Stakeholders Engagement and Agenda Setting in a Developing Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
      4. PROBLEM STREAM
      5. PROPOSAL STREAM
      6. POLITICS STREAM
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 44: Response to School Violence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SCHOOL VIOLENCE
      4. THE RESPONSE TO SCHOOL VIOLENCE
      5. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTE
    7. Chapter 45: The Role of Online Health Education Communities in Wellness and Recovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE REAL BENEFITS OF VIRTUAL EXPERIENCES
      3. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
      4. INFORMAL LEARNING
      5. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
      6. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN PERSONAL HEALTH EDUCATION
      7. RESEARCH METHOD
      8. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      9. ACROSS CASE FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. SYNTHESIS OF “DISCERNING GUIDELINES”
      12. LIMITATIONS
      13. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 46: Phenomenology, Epigenome and Epigenetic Influence on the Growth and Development of School-Age Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE ROLE OF EPIGENOME AND EPIGENETIC INFLUENCES ON THE HUMAN AGING PROCESS
      3. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 47: Employee Welfare Measures in Public and Private Sectors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. EMPLOYEE WELFARE SCHEMES
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WELFARE MEASURES
      8. IMPACT OF WELFARE MEASURES ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
      9. RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 48: Organizational Leadership and Health Care Reform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND HEALTH CARE REFORM
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND HEALTH CARE REFORM ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 49: When the System Fails
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  12. Section 5: Critical Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 50: The Crisis of Public Health as a Media Event
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 51: Exacerbating Health Risks in India due to Climate Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND SOME THREATS TO HUMAN HEALTH: INDIAN CONTEXT
      4. SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF HEAT RELATED HEALTH IMPACTS
      5. INTEGRATING “CLIMATE CHANGE” AND “HEALTH ISSUES”: GAP IDENTIFICATION
      6. GAPS AND CHALLENGES
      7. ALTERNATE HEALTH POLICY REGIME AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
      11. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 52: Climate Change Effects on Human Health with a Particular Focus on Vector-Borne Diseases and Malaria in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS
      5. MALARIA AND WEATHER CONDITIONS
      6. CLIMATE CHANGE AND MALARIA
      7. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERCEPTIONS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN METROPOLITAN KANO ABOUT LINKS BETWEEN MALARIA EPIDEMICS, WEATHER VARIABLES AND CLIMATE CHANGE
    4. Chapter 53: The Idea of Human Rights in Conditions of Hospital Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHT TO HEALTH AND HOSPITAL TREATMENT ORGANIZATION
      4. REALIZATION OF SELECTED HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES IN TERMS OF HOSPITAL TREATMENT
      5. THE RIGHT NOT TO BE TREATED IN AN INHUMAN OR DEGRADING WAY
      6. THE RIGHT TO RESPECT FOR PRIVATE AND FAMILY LIFE, HOME AND CORRESPONDENCE
      7. THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OR LIBERTY
      8. THE RIGHT TO A FAIR TRIAL
      9. THE RIGHT NOT TO BE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST
      10. THE RIGHT TO LIFE
      11. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
      12. PROTECTION OF HEALTH AS A PREMISE OF HUMAN RIGHTS RESTRICTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 54: What Drives the Adoption of Social Media Applications by the Public Sector?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THEORETICAL HYPOTHESES
      4. DATA AND METHODS
      5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 55: Are Climate Change Adaptation Policies a Game Changer?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: CLIMATE CHANGE IN ONTARIO, CANADA
      4. METHODS AND ANALYSIS
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION: PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY AS CONSTRAINING AND ENABLING FOR FIELDS OF PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE
      7. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS TO BOLSTER ADAPTIVE CAPACITY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
    7. Chapter 56: A Systems Approach for Sustainably Reducing Childhood Diarrheal Deaths in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PUBLIC HEALTH TRAJECTORY IN THE DEVELOPED WORLD
      5. WHERE ON THE SANITARY REFORM TRAJECTORY ARE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?
      6. LAWS AND LATRINES: HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 57: A Systematic Approach towards the Typology of Functions of National Health System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 58: Rough Fuzzy Set Theory and Neighbourhood Approximation Based Modelling for Spatial Epidemiology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EPIDEMIOLOGY
      4. SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS
      5. DECISION SYSTEMS
      6. FUZZY FLAIR TO DECISION SYSTEMS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 59: Toward an Informed-Patient Approach to E-Health Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INFORMED-PATIENT ROLE
      4. THE PHYSICIAN-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP
      5. THE PATIENT ROLE AND HEALTH POLICY
      6. MANAGERIAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
  13. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 60: Health Policy Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
      4. THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS
      5. BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
      6. PRINCIPAL-AGENCY THEORY
      7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      8. METHOD OF ANALYSIS
      9. HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION (RESOURCES)
      10. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS IN HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
      11. HEALTH POLICY IMPLENTATION (OUTPUTS/OUTCOMES)
      12. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT IN HEALTH SYSTEM
      13. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE HEALTH POLICY IMPLEMENTATION
      14. SUPPLY BARRIER
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFEREENCES
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 61: Public Hospitals in China
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. AIMS AND METHODS
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 62: A Follow up to Semi-Automatic Systems for Exchanging Health Information
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. REALIZATION OF THE RESEARCH
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 63: The Future of Antibiotics and Meat
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANTIBIOTIC USE
      4. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
      5. SUSTAINABILITY IMPLICATIONS OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
      6. PROTECTING THE ANTIBIOTICS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 64: Towards European Modern Societies with Health Systems That Are Able to Add More Years to Life, But Also to Add More Life to Years
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 65: Improving the Effects of Global Health Initiatives through FOMENT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOMENT OVERVIEW
      4. CASE STUDIES: THE POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF FOMENT ON GLOBAL DISEASE MANAGEMENT
      5. FUTURE DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 66: The States as Generators of Incremental Change in American Health Care Policy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODEL FOR THE EXPANSION OF FEDERAL HEALTH CARE FINANCING
      4. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE MATCHING FORMULAS: THE FOUNDATION FOR FEDERAL HEALTH CARE SPENDING
      5. REGIONAL CLEAVAGES ARISING FROM THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT OF 1935
      6. THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1960
      7. THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1965
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 67: Change through Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONNECTING GAME PLAY TO HEALTH OUTCOMES
      5. THEORIES LINKING GAME ELEMENTS TO HEALTH
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. Chapter 68: Emerging Role of Technology in Health Education for Youth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATE OF YOUTH HEALTH EDUCATION
      4. USE OF TECHNOLOGY BY YOUTH FOR HEALTH EDUCATION
      5. YOUTH AWARENESS OF DIGITAL SERVICES/PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH EDUCATION
      6. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 69: Clinical Communication in the Aspect of Development of New Technologies and E-Health in the Doctor-Patient Relationship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DOCTOR-PATIENT E-MAIL COMMUNICATION
      4. PATIENT–CENTERED CARE IN MEDICAL COMMUNICATION
      5. FIVE STEPS TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 70: Advanced Intervention Strategies for Suicide in Patients with Chronic Mental Illness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FACTORS FOR SUICIDE RISK
      4. ADVANCE INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
      5. SPECIAL TOPICS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 71: The Future of Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES