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Proxmox High Availability

Book Description

Introduce, design, and implement high availability clusters using Proxmox

In Detail

With the help of an easy-to-use tool provided by Proxmox, users can easily improve their service by building up their own cluster. Proxmox is open source and combines two virtualization technologies (KVM- and container-based) under one platform, offering maximum flexibility for building virtual environments.

This book starts with the basics and provides you with some background knowledge of server virtualization and then shows you the differences between other types of virtualization software, such as VMware, Hyper-V, Xen, and so on, versus Proxmox. By the end of this book, you will have a strong idea on how to plan, design, implement, and test your own cluster with a high level of availability.

This book adopts a step-by-step, easy-to-follow approach and demonstrates a high availability cluster with brief descriptions and useful explanations on important topics.

What You Will Learn

  • Design and plan a high availability cluster from scratch with guidelines on hardware and software preparation
  • Work with the Proxmox virtual environment and learn the concepts on KVM and openVZ
  • Build your own network RAID 1 device with DRBD technology from concepts to practical approach
  • Install, configure, and integrate distributed filesystems with Gluster and Ceph on Proxmox
  • Test and troubleshoot different levels of system failures for the Proxmox cluster
  • Migrate your existing system over different platforms including Windows, Linux, and even virtualized platforms like as VMware
  • Perform recovery for a failed Proxmox cluster from backup configuration files
  • Downloading the example code for this book. You can download the example code files for all Packt books you have purchased from your account at If you purchased this book elsewhere, you can visit and register to have the files e-mailed directly to you.

    Table of Contents

    1. Proxmox High Availability
      1. Table of Contents
      2. Proxmox High Availability
      3. Credits
      4. About the Author
      5. About the Reviewers
        1. Support files, eBooks, discount offers, and more
          1. Why subscribe?
          2. Free access for Packt account holders
      7. Preface
        1. What this book covers
        2. What you need for this book
        3. Who this book is for
        4. Conventions
        5. Reader feedback
        6. Customer support
          1. Errata
          2. Piracy
          3. Questions
      8. 1. Basic Concepts of a Proxmox Virtual Environment
        1. Introduction to Proxmox Virtual Environment
        2. Introduction to server virtualization
        3. Server virtualization basics – guest versus host
        4. Comparing types of server virtualization software
          1. Comparison table of hypervisors
        5. Basic administration on Proxmox VE
          1. Uploading the OS template or the ISO file to Proxmox
          2. Creating an OpenVZ-based virtual machine
          3. Creating a kernel-based virtual machine
          4. Accessing the new virtual machine
        6. Virtualization options in Proxmox VE
        7. Virtual disk options under Proxmox VE
        8. Introducing the OpenVZ template
        9. Summary
      9. 2. Getting Started with a High Availability (HA) Environment
        1. What is a high availability (HA) environment?
          1. What is availability?
            1. Negative effects of system downtime
            2. Strategies to achieve High Availability (HA)
        2. Introducing a Proxmox VE cluster
          1. Introduction to DRBD
          2. Explaining live migration
            1. Introducing the post-copy memory migration
            2. Introducing the pre-copy memory migration
        3. System requirements for the Proxmox cluster
          1. Describing the requirements for RAID
            1. The RAID 0 operation
            2. The RAID 1 operation
            3. The RAID 10 operation
        4. HA capability for Proxmox with a two-node cluster
          1. The Proxmox Cluster file system (pmxcfs)
        5. Summary
      10. 3. Key Components for Building a Proxmox VE Cluster
        1. Key component 1 – shared storage
          1. Characteristics of SAN and NAS
          2. Available storage options in Proxmox
            1. Storage option 1 – storage over iSCSI
              1. An explanation of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
            2. Storage option 2 – a distributed replicated block device (DRBD)
            3. Storage option 3 – the Gluster filesystem
            4. Storage option 4 – the Ceph filesystem
          3. Comparing the types of file storage supported by Proxmox
        2. Key component 2 – reliable network
        3. Key component 3 – a fencing device
          1. What is a fencing device?
          2. Available fencing device options
          3. Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
          4. Simple network management protocol (SNMP)
        4. Key component 4 – quorum disk
        5. Summary
      11. 4. Configuring a Proxmox VE Cluster
        1. Configuring a network for a Proxmox VE cluster
          1. Building a network with redundancy
          2. Building a separate network for the Proxmox VE cluster
            1. Introducing Proxmox's network options
            2. Introducing the VLAN structure
          3. Creating an infrastructure for a Proxmox cluster testing environment
          4. The concept of a quorum device
          5. The concept of a bonding device
          6. The concept of DRBD
          7. Preparing a network for a Proxmox cluster
        2. Preparing storage for a Proxmox cluster
          1. Preparing iSCSI shared storage with NAS4free for the quorum device
            1. Basic concepts of an iSCSI device
        3. Configuring a Proxmox VE cluster
          1. Forming a two-node cluster with DRBD
          2. Installing and configuring DRBD
            1. Creating an LVM volume based on the DRBD shared storage
        4. Network fencing with a Cisco switch via SNMP
        5. Building a Gluster filesystem for a Proxmox cluster
        6. Building a Ceph filesystem for a Proxmox cluster
          1. Mounting a Ceph device as shared storage
        7. Summary
      12. 5. Testing on a Proxmox Cluster
        1. Storage preparation for an LVM shared storage
        2. Demonstration of live migration
          1. Using an OpenVZ container for live migration
          2. Live migration with a KVM
        3. Building an HA-protected VM
        4. Testing with the cluster environment
          1. Testing an HA service relocation
            1. Testing the OpenVZ container relocation
            2. Testing a KVM relocation
          2. Testing a single network interface failure
          3. Testing a single network switch failure
          4. Testing a single cluster node failure
        5. Setting up a failover domain
        6. Summary
      13. 6. System Migration of an Existing System to a Proxmox VE Cluster
        1. System migration of an existing Linux platform
          1. Preparing for container migration on a Proxmox server
          2. Migrating data to a container using the rsync command
        2. Live migration of a physical machine to a KVM
          1. Preparing for migration on the source machine
            1. Creating an LVM snapshot volume for data copying
          2. Preparing for migration on a Proxmox server
            1. Restoring disk information from the source backup
          3. Copying data from the source server to the Proxmox server
        3. System migration of a Windows platform
          1. Post-migration for offline migration with a physical machine
        4. System migration from VMware to Proxmox
        5. System migration from XenServer / Hyper-V Server to Proxmox
        6. Summary
      14. 7. Disaster Recovery on a Proxmox VE Cluster
        1. Backup process for VMs in Proxmox
          1. Backing up the configuration files of a Proxmox cluster
          2. Backing up the VM data in Proxmox
            1. Backing up using the vzdump command for VMs
              1. Backing up using the vzdump stop mode for the OpenVZ container
                1. Defining a new backup storage location
              2. Backing up with vzdump stop mode for KVM
              3. Backing up with the vzdump suspend mode
              4. Preparation for using the LVM snapshot with vzdump
                1. Creating a new LVM volume for backup storage
                2. Reducing the size of an LVM's logical volume
                3. Adding/replacing physical storage for the existing LVM volume
              5. Backing up with vzdump and an LVM snapshot
            2. Backing up with the web management console
        2. The restore process of VMs in Proxmox
          1. Restoring a VM with vzrestore
            1. Restoring an OpenVZ container with vzrestore
            2. Restoring a KVM machine with vzrestore
          2. Restoring a VM with the web management console
        3. Setting up a scheduled backup for the VMs
          1. Building up our own OS template
          2. Building our own OpenVZ template from an existing container
          3. Building our own VM template from an existing KVM machine
        4. System recovery of a Proxmox cluster failure
          1. Replacing a failed cluster node
          2. Building a redundant cluster from the backup files
          3. Removing a cluster member node
        5. Summary
      15. 8. Troubleshooting on a Proxmox Cluster
        1. Troubleshooting system access problems
          1. Undefined video mode number
          2. Cannot open the console window in the web management GUI
          3. A KVM machine cannot be turned off using the Shutdown command
        2. Troubleshooting system migration problems
          1. The KVM machine cannot be migrated
          2. An OpenVZ container cannot be migrated
        3. Troubleshooting system storage problems
          1. DRBD volume not in synchronization
            1. Need access to up-to-date data during service initialization
            2. DRBD volume shows the Diskless status
            3. DRBD volume shows the Unknown status
          2. Rebuilding a DRBD volume
          3. Failed to get the extended attribute trusted.glusterfs.volume-id for brick x on a GlusterFS volume
          4. Replacing a failed Gluster node
          5. CEPH service that shows AA.BB.CC.DD/0 pipe (XXX).fault
          6. CEPH service that shows OSD.X is down
        4. Troubleshooting Proxmox cluster problems
          1. Unable to start the HA-enabled VM
          2. The cluster node is being fenced
          3. Nodes unable to rejoin cluster after fence or reboot
          4. Unable to restart the cluster service
          5. Unable to perform any change on the cluster
        5. Summary
      16. Index