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Protective Relaying, 4th Edition

Book Description

For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text:

  • Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid
  • Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored
  • Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis
  • Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes
  • Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities

Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  2. Preface to the Third Edition
  3. Preface to the Second Edition
  4. Preface to the First Edition
  5. Author
  6. Chapter 1 - Introduction and General Philosophies
    1. 1.1 Introduction and Definitions
    2. 1.2 Typical Protective Relays and Relay Systems
    3. 1.3 Typical Power Circuit Breakers
    4. 1.4 Nomenclature and Device Numbers
    5. 1.5 Typical Relay and Circuit Breaker Connections
    6. 1.6 Basic Objectives of System Protection
      1. 1.6.1 Reliability
      2. 1.6.2 Selectivity
      3. 1.6.3 Speed
      4. 1.6.4 Simplicity
      5. 1.6.5 Economics
      6. 1.6.6 General Summary
    7. 1.7 Factors Affecting the Protection System
      1. 1.7.1 Economics
      2. 1.7.2 Personality Factor
      3. 1.7.3 Location of Disconnecting and Input Devices
      4. 1.7.4 Available Fault Indicators
    8. 1.8 Classification of Relays
      1. 1.8.1 Protective Relays
      2. 1.8.2 Regulating Relays
      3. 1.8.3 Reclosing, Synchronism Check, and Synchronizing Relays
      4. 1.8.4 Monitoring Relays
      5. 1.8.5 Auxiliary Relays
      6. 1.8.6 Other Relay Classifications
    9. 1.9 Protective Relay Performance
      1. 1.9.1 Correct Operation
      2. 1.9.2 Incorrect Operation
      3. 1.9.3 No Conclusion
      4. 1.9.4 Tracking Relay Performance
    10. 1.10 Principles of Relay Application
    11. 1.11 Information for Application
      1. 1.11.1 System Configuration
      2. 1.11.2 Impedance and Connection of the Power Equipment, System Frequency, System Voltage, and System Phase Sequence
      3. 1.11.3 Existing Protection and Problems
      4. 1.11.4 Operating Procedures and Practices
      5. 1.11.5 Importance of the System Equipment Being Protected
      6. 1.11.6 System Fault Study
      7. 1.11.7 Maximum Loads and System Swing Limits
      8. 1.11.8 Current and Voltage Transformer Locations, Connections, and Ratios
      9. 1.11.9 Future Expansion
    12. 1.12 Structural Changes within the Electric Power Industry
    13. 1.13 Reliability and Protection Standards
      1. 1.13.1 Regulatory Agencies
    14. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 2 - Fundamental Units: Per-Unit and Percent Values
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Per-Unit and Percent Definitions
    3. 2.3 Advantages of Per Unit and Percent
    4. 2.4 General Relations between Circuit Quantities
    5. 2.5 Base Quantities
    6. 2.6 Per-Unit and Percent Impedance Relations
    7. 2.7 Per-Unit and Percent Impedances of Transformer Units
      1. 2.7.1 Transformer Bank Example
    8. 2.8 Per-Unit and Percent Impedances of Generators
    9. 2.9 Per-Unit and Percent Impedances of Overhead Lines
    10. 2.10 Changing Per-Unit (Percent) Quantities to Different Bases
      1. 2.10.1 Example: Base Conversion with Equation 2.34
      2. 2.10.2 Example: Base Conversion Requiring Equation 2.33
    11. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 3 - Phasors and Polarity
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Phasors
      1. 3.2.1 Phasor Representation
      2. 3.2.2 Phasor Diagrams for Sinusoidal Quantities
      3. 3.2.3 Combining Phasors
      4. 3.2.4 Phasor Diagrams Require a Circuit Diagram
      5. 3.2.5 Nomenclature for Current and Voltage
        1. 3.2.5.1 Current and Flux
        2. 3.2.5.2 Voltage
      6. 3.2.6 Phasor Diagram
    3. 3.3 Circuit and Phasor Diagrams for a Balanced Three-Phase Power System
    4. 3.4 Phasor and Phase Rotation
    5. 3.5 Polarity
      1. 3.5.1 Transformer Polarity
      2. 3.5.2 Relay Polarity
    6. 3.6 Application of Polarity for Phase-Fault Directional Sensing
      1. 3.6.1 90°–60° Connection for Phase-Fault Protection
    7. 3.7 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Voltage Polarization
    8. 3.8 Directional Sensing for Ground Faults: Current Polarization
    9. 3.9 Other Directional-Sensing Connections
    10. 3.10 Application Aspects of Directional Relaying
    11. 3.11 Summary
  9. Chapter 4 - Symmetrical Components: A Review
    1. 4.1 Introduction and Background
    2. 4.2 Positive-Sequence Set
    3. 4.3 Nomenclature Convenience
    4. 4.4 Negative-Sequence Set
    5. 4.5 Zero-Sequence Set
    6. 4.6 General Equations
    7. 4.7 Sequence Independence
    8. 4.8 Positive-Sequence Sources
    9. 4.9 Sequence Networks
      1. 4.9.1 Positive-Sequence Network
      2. 4.9.2 Negative-Sequence Network
      3. 4.9.3 Zero-Sequence Network
      4. 4.9.4 Sequence Network Reduction
    10. 4.10 Shunt Unbalance Sequence Network Interconnections
      1. 4.10.1 Fault Impedance
      2. 4.10.2 Substation and Tower-Footing Impedance
      3. 4.10.3 Sequence Interconnections for Three-Phase Faults
      4. 4.10.4 Sequence Interconnections for Single-Phase-to-Ground Faults
      5. 4.10.5 Sequence Interconnections for Phase-to-Phase Faults
      6. 4.10.6 Sequence Interconnections for Double-Phase-to-Ground Faults
      7. 4.10.7 Other Sequence Interconnections for Shunt System Conditions
    11. 4.11 Example: Fault Calculations on a Typical System Shown in Figure 4.16
      1. 4.11.1 Three-Phase Fault at Bus G
      2. 4.11.2 Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault at Bus G
    12. 4.12 Example: Fault Calculation for Autotransformers
      1. 4.12.1 Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault at H Calculation
    13. 4.13 Example: Open-Phase Conductor
    14. 4.14 Example: Open-Phase Falling to Ground on One Side
    15. 4.15 Series and Simultaneous Unbalances
    16. 4.16 Overview
      1. 4.16.1 Voltage and Current Phasors for Shunt Faults
      2. 4.16.2 System Voltage Profiles during Faults
      3. 4.16.3 Unbalanced Currents in the Unfaulted Phases for Phase-to-Ground Faults in Loop Systems
      4. 4.16.4 Voltage and Current Fault Phasors for All Combinations of the Different Faults
    17. 4.17 Summary
    18. Bibliography
    19. Appendix 4.1 Short-Circuit MVA and Equivalent Impedance
      1. A.4.1-1 Three-Phase Faults
      2. A.4.1-2 Single-Phase-to-Ground Faults
    20. Appendix 4.2 Impedance and Sequence Connections for Transformer Banks
      1. A.4.2-1 Two-Winding Transformer Banks
      2. A.4.2-2 Three-Winding and Autotransformer Banks
    21. Appendix 4.3 Sequence Phase Shifts through Wye–Delta Transformer Banks
      1. A.4.3-1 Summary
    22. Appendix 4.4 Impedance of Overhead Lines
      1. A.4.4-1 Resistance of Overhead Lines
      2. A.4.4-2 Inductive Reactance of a Single Conductor over Earth
      3. A.4.4-3 Mutual Inductive Reactance of Two Conductors over Earth
      4. A.4.4-4 Impedance of Three-Phase Overhead Lines
        1. A.4.4-4.1 Three-Phase Overhead Line: No Ground Wires (Lossless Earth)
      5. A.4.4-5 GMR and GMD Concepts: Three-Phase Overhead Lines
      6. A.4.4-6 Three-Phase Overhead Line: Impact of Ground Wires and Earth Resistance
    23. Appendix 4.5 Zero-Sequence Impedance of Transformers
  10. Chapter 5 - Relay Input Sources
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Equivalent Circuits of Current and Voltage Transformers
    3. 5.3 CTs for Protection Applications
    4. 5.4 CT Performance on a Symmetrical AC Component
      1. 5.4.1 Performance by Classic Analysis
      2. 5.4.2 Performance by CT Characteristic Curves
      3. 5.4.3 Performance by ANSI/IEEE Standard Accuracy Classes
      4. 5.4.4 IEC Standard Accuracy Classes
    5. 5.5 Secondary Burdens during Faults
    6. 5.6 CT Selection and Performance Evaluation for Phase Faults
      1. 5.6.1 CT Ratio Selection for Phase-Connected Equipment
      2. 5.6.2 Select the Relay Tap for the Phase–Overcurrent Relays
      3. 5.6.3 Determine the Total Connected Secondary Load (Burden) in Ohms
      4. 5.6.4 Determine the CT Performance Using the ANSI/IEEE Standard
        1. 5.6.4.1 When Using a Class T CT
        2. 5.6.4.2 When Using a Class C CT and Performance by the ANSI/IEEE Standard
        3. 5.6.4.3 When Using a Class C CT and Performance with the CT Excitation Curves
    7. 5.7 Performance Evaluation for Ground Relays
    8. 5.8 Effect of Unenergized CTs on Performance
    9. 5.9 Flux Summation Current Transformer
    10. 5.10 Current Transformer Performance on the DC Component
    11. 5.11 Summary: Current Transformer Performance Evaluation
      1. 5.11.1 Saturation on Symmetrical AC Current Input Resulting from the CT Characteristics and the Secondary Load
      2. 5.11.2 Saturation by the DC Offset of the Primary AC Current
    12. 5.12 Current Transformer Residual Flux and Subsidence Transients
    13. 5.13 Auxiliary Current Transformers in CT Secondary Circuits
    14. 5.14 Voltage Transformers for Protective Applications
    15. 5.15 Optical Sensors
    16. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 6 - Protection Fundamentals and Basic Design Principles
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Differential Principle
    3. 6.3 Overcurrent–Distance Protection and the Basic Protection Problem
      1. 6.3.1 Time Solution
      2. 6.3.2 Communication Solution
    4. 6.4 Backup Protection: Remote versus Local
    5. 6.5 Basic Design Principles
      1. 6.5.1 Time–Overcurrent Relays
      2. 6.5.2 Instantaneous Current–Voltage Relays
      3. 6.5.3 Directional-Sensing Power Relays
      4. 6.5.4 Polar Unit
      5. 6.5.5 Phase Distance Relays
        1. 6.5.5.1 Balanced Beam Type: Impedance Characteristic
      6. 6.5.6 R–X Diagram
      7. 6.5.7 Mho Characteristic
      8. 6.5.8 Single-Phase Mho Units
      9. 6.5.9 Polyphase Mho Units
        1. 6.5.9.1 Three-Phase Fault Units
        2. 6.5.9.2 Phase-to-Phase Fault Units
      10. 6.5.10 Other Mho Units
      11. 6.5.11 Reactance Units
    6. 6.6 Ground Distance Relays
    7. 6.7 Solid-State Microprocessor Relays
    8. 6.8 Summary
    9. Bibliography
  12. Chapter 7 - System-Grounding Principles
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Ungrounded Systems
    3. 7.3 Transient Overvoltages
    4. 7.4 Grounded-Detection Methods for Ungrounded Systems
      1. 7.4.1 Three-Voltage Transformers
      2. 7.4.2 Single-Voltage Transformers
    5. 7.5 High-Impedance Grounding Systems
      1. 7.5.1 Resonant Grounding
      2. 7.5.2 High-Resistance Grounding
      3. 7.5.3 Example: Typical High-Resistance Neutral Grounding
      4. 7.5.4 Example: Typical High-Resistance Grounding with Three Distribution Transformers
    6. 7.6 System Grounding for Mine or Other Hazardous-Type Applications
    7. 7.7 Low-Impedance Grounding
      1. 7.7.1 Example: Typical Low-Resistance Neutral Reactor Grounding
      2. 7.7.2 Example: Typical Low-Resistance Neutral Resistance Grounding
    8. 7.8 Solid (Effective) Grounding
      1. 7.8.1 Example: Solid Grounding
      2. 7.8.2 Ground Detection on Solid-Grounded Systems
    9. 7.9 Ferroresonance in Three-Phase Power Systems
      1. 7.9.1 General Summary for Ferroresonance for Distribution Systems
      2. 7.9.2 Ferroresonance at High Voltages
    10. 7.10 Safety Grounding
    11. 7.11 Grounding Summary and Recommendations
    12. Bibliography
  13. Chatper 8 - Generator Protection/Intertie Protection for Distributed Generation
    1. 8.1 Introduction
      1. 8.1.1 Historical Perspectives
      2. 8.1.2 Bulk Power Generators
      3. 8.1.3 Distributed Generators
      4. 8.1.4 Potential Problems
    2. 8.2 Generator Connections and Overview of Typical Protection
    3. 8.3 Stator Phase-Fault Protection for All Size Generators
      1. 8.3.1 Differential Protection (87) for Small kVA (MVA) Generators
      2. 8.3.2 Multi-CT Differential Protection (87) for All Size Generators
      3. 8.3.3 High-Impedance Voltage Differential Protection for Generators
      4. 8.3.4 Direct-Connected Generator Current Differential Example
      5. 8.3.5 Phase Protection for Small Generators That Do Not Use Differentials
      6. 8.3.6 Unit Generator Current Differential (87) Example for Phase Protection
    4. 8.4 Unit Transformer Phase-Fault Differential Protection (87TG)
    5. 8.5 Phase-Fault Backup Protection (51 V) or (21)
      1. 8.5.1 Voltage-Controlled or Voltage-Restraint Time–Overcurrent (51 V) Backup Protection
      2. 8.5.2 Phase Distance (21) Backup Protection
    6. 8.6 Negative-Sequence Current Backup Protection
    7. 8.7 Stator Ground-Fault Protection
      1. 8.7.1 Ground-Fault Protection for Single Medium or Small Wye-Connected Generators (Type 1a: See Figure 8.3 and Figure 8.11)
      2. 8.7.2 Ground-Fault Protection of Multiple Medium or Small Wye- or Delta-Connected Generators (Type 2: See Figure 8.2 and Figure 8.12)
      3. 8.7.3 Ground-Fault Protection for Ungrounded Generators
      4. 8.7.4 Ground-Fault Protection for Very Small, Solidly Grounded Generators
      5. 8.7.5 Ground-Fault Protection for Unit-Connected Generators Using High-Impedance Neutral Grounding (Type 1b: See Figure 8.5)
      6. 8.7.6 Added Protection for 100% Generator Ground Protection with High-Resistance Grounding
      7. 8.7.7 High-Voltage Ground-Fault Coupling Can Produce V0 in High-Impedance Grounding Systems
      8. 8.7.8 Ground-Fault Protection for Multidirect-Connected Generators Using High-Resistance Grounding
    8. 8.8 Multiple Generator Units Connected Directly to a Transformer: Grounding and Protection
    9. 8.9 Field Ground Protection (64)
    10. 8.10 Generator Off-Line Protection
    11. 8.11 Reduced or Lost Excitation Protection (40)
      1. 8.11.1 Loss of Excitation Protection with Distance (21) Relays
      2. 8.11.2 Loss of Excitation Protection with a Var-Type Relay
    12. 8.12 Generator Protection for System Disturbances and Operational Hazards
      1. 8.12.1 Loss of Prime Mover: Generator Motoring (32)
      2. 8.12.2 Overexcitation: Volts per Hertz Protection (24)
      3. 8.12.3 Inadvertent Energization: Nonsynchronized Connection (67)
      4. 8.12.4 Breaker Pole Flashover (61)
      5. 8.12.5 Thermal Overload (49)
      6. 8.12.6 Off-Frequency Operation
      7. 8.12.7 Overvoltage
      8. 8.12.8 Loss of Synchronism: Out-of-Step
      9. 8.12.9 Subsynchronous Oscillations
    13. 8.13 Loss of Voltage Transformer Signal
    14. 8.14 Generator Breaker Failure
    15. 8.15 Excitation System Protection and Limiters
      1. 8.15.1 Field Grounds
      2. 8.15.2 Field Overexcitation
      3. 8.15.3 Field Underexcitation
      4. 8.15.4 Practical Considerations
    16. 8.16 Synchronous Condenser Protection
    17. 8.17 Generator-Tripping Systems
    18. 8.18 Station Auxiliary Service System
    19. 8.19 Distributed Generator Intertie Protection
      1. 8.19.1 Power Quality Protection
      2. 8.19.2 Power System Fault Protection
      3. 8.19.3 System Protection for Faults on Distributed Generator Facilities
      4. 8.19.4 Other Intertie Protection Considerations
      5. 8.19.5 Induction Generators/Static Inverters/Wind Farms
        1. 8.19.5.1 Induction Generators
        2. 8.19.5.2 Inverters
        3. 8.19.5.3 Wind Farms
      6. 8.19.6 Practical Considerations of Distributed Generation
    20. 8.20 Protection Summary
    21. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 9 - Transformer, Reactor, and Shunt Capacitor Protection
    1. 9.1 Transformers
    2. 9.2 Factors Affecting Differential Protection
    3. 9.3 False Differential Current
      1. 9.3.1 Magnetization Inrush
      2. 9.3.2 Overexcitation
      3. 9.3.3 Current Transformer Saturation
    4. 9.4 Transformer Differential Relay Characteristics
    5. 9.5 Application and Connection of Transformer Differential Relays
    6. 9.6 Example: Differential Protection Connections for a Two-Winding Wye–Delta Transformer Bank
      1. 9.6.1 First Step: Phasing
      2. 9.6.2 Second Step: CT Ratio and Tap Selections
    7. 9.7 Load Tap-Changing Transformers
    8. 9.8 Example: Differential Protection Connections for Multiwinding Transformer Bank
    9. 9.9 Application of Auxiliaries for Current Balancing
    10. 9.10 Paralleling CTs in Differential Circuits
    11. 9.11 Special Connections for Transformer Differential Relays
    12. 9.12 Differential Protection for Three-Phase Banks of Single-Phase Transformer Units
    13. 9.13 Ground (Zero-Sequence) Differential Protection for Transformers
    14. 9.14 Equipment for Transfer Trip Systems
      1. 9.14.1 Fault Switch
      2. 9.14.2 Communication Channel
      3. 9.14.3 Limited Fault-Interruption Device
    15. 9.15 Mechanical Fault Detection for Transformers
      1. 9.15.1 Gas Detection
      2. 9.15.2 Sudden Pressure
    16. 9.16 Grounding Transformer Protection
    17. 9.17 Ground Differential Protection with Directional Relays
    18. 9.18 Protection of Regulating Transformers
    19. 9.19 Transformer Overcurrent Protection
    20. 9.20 Transformer Overload-Through-Fault-Withstand Standards
    21. 9.21 Examples: Transformer Overcurrent Protection
      1. 9.21.1 Industrial Plant or Similar Facility Served by a 2500 kVA, 12 kV: 480 V Transformer with 5.75% Impedance
      2. 9.21.2 Distribution or Similar Facility Served by a 7500 kVA, 115: 12 kV Transformer with 7.8% Impedance
      3. 9.21.3 Substation Served by a 12/16/20 MVA, 115: 12.5 kV Transformer with 10% Impedance
    22. 9.22 Transformer Thermal Protection
    23. 9.23 Overvoltage on Transformers
    24. 9.24 Summary: Typical Protection for Transformers
      1. 9.24.1 Individual Transformer Units
      2. 9.24.2 Parallel Transformer Units
      3. 9.24.3 Redundancy Requirements for Bulk Power Transformers
    25. 9.25 Reactors
      1. 9.25.1 Types of Reactors
      2. 9.25.2 General Application of Shunt Reactors
      3. 9.25.3 Reactor Protection
    26. 9.26 Capacitors
    27. 9.27 Power System Reactive Requirements
    28. 9.28 Shunt Capacitor Applications
    29. 9.29 Capacitor Bank Designs
    30. 9.30 Distribution Capacitors Bank Protection
    31. 9.31 Designs and Limitations of Large Capacitor Banks
    32. 9.32 Protection of Large Capacitor Banks
    33. 9.33 Series Capacitor Bank Protection
    34. 9.34 Capacitor Bank Protection Application Issues
    35. Bibliography
    36. Appendix 9.1 Application of Digital Transformer Differential Relays
      1. A.9.1-1 Current Magnitude Compensation
      2. A.9.1-2 Phase Angle Compensation
      3. A.9.1-3 Other Features of Digital Transformer Differential Relays
  15. Chapter 10 - Bus Protection
    1. 10.1 Introduction: Typical Bus Arrangements
    2. 10.2 Single Breaker–Single Bus
    3. 10.3 Single Buses Connected with Bus Ties
    4. 10.4 Main and Transfer Buses with Single Breakers
    5. 10.5 Single Breaker–Double Bus
    6. 10.6 Double Breaker–Double Bus
    7. 10.7 Ring Bus
    8. 10.8 Breaker-and-Half Bus
    9. 10.9 Transformer–Bus Combination
    10. 10.10 General Summary of Buses
    11. 10.11 Differential Protection for Buses
      1. 10.11.1 Multirestraint Current Differential
      2. 10.11.2 High-Impedance Voltage Differential
      3. 10.11.3 Air-Core Transformer Differential
      4. 10.11.4 Moderate High-Impedance Differential
    12. 10.12 Other Bus Differential Systems
      1. 10.12.1 Time–Overcurrent Differential
      2. 10.12.2 Directional Comparison Differential
      3. 10.12.3 Partial Differential
      4. 10.12.4 Short Time-Delay Scheme: Instantaneous Blocking
    13. 10.13 Ground-Fault Bus
    14. 10.14 Protection Summary
    15. 10.15 Bus Protection: Practical Considerations
    16. Bibliography
  16. Chapter 11 - Motor Protection
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Potential Motor Hazards
    3. 11.3 Motor Characteristics Involved in Protection
    4. 11.4 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit
    5. 11.5 General Motor Protection
    6. 11.6 Phase-Fault Protection
    7. 11.7 Differential Protection
    8. 11.8 Ground-Fault Protection
    9. 11.9 Thermal and Locked-Rotor Protection
    10. 11.10 Locked-Rotor Protection for Large Motors (21)
    11. 11.11 System Unbalance and Motors
    12. 11.12 Unbalance and Phase Rotation Protection
    13. 11.13 Undervoltage Protection
    14. 11.14 Bus Transfer and Reclosing
    15. 11.15 Repetitive Starts and Jogging Protection
    16. 11.16 Multifunction Microprocessor Motor Protection Units
    17. 11.17 Synchronous Motor Protection
    18. 11.18 Summary: Typical Protection for Motors
    19. 11.19 Practical Considerations of Motor Protection
    20. Bibliography
  17. Chapter 12 - Line Protection
    1. 12.1 Classifications of Lines and Feeders
    2. 12.2 Line Classifications for Protection
      1. 12.2.1 Distribution Lines
      2. 12.2.2 Transmission and Subtransmission Lines
    3. 12.3 Techniques and Equipment for Line Protection
      1. 12.3.1 Fuses
      2. 12.3.2 Automatic Circuit Reclosers
      3. 12.3.3 Sectionalizers
      4. 12.3.4 Coordinating Time Interval
    4. 12.4 Coordination Fundamentals and General Setting Criteria
      1. 12.4.1 Phase Time–Overcurrent Relay Setting
      2. 12.4.2 Ground Time–Overcurrent Relay Setting
      3. 12.4.3 Phase and Ground Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay Setting
    5. 12.5 Distribution Feeder, Radial Line Protection, and Coordination
    6. 12.6 Example: Coordination for a Typical Distribution Feeder
      1. 12.6.1 Practical Distribution Coordination Considerations
    7. 12.7 Distributed Generators and Other Sources Connected to Distribution Lines
    8. 12.8 Example: Coordination for a Loop System
    9. 12.9 Instantaneous Trip Application for a Loop System
    10. 12.10 Short-Line Applications
    11. 12.11 Network and Spot Network Systems
    12. 12.12 Distance Protection for Phase Faults
    13. 12.13 Distance Relay Applications for Tapped and Multiterminal Lines
    14. 12.14 Voltage Sources for Distance Relays
    15. 12.15 Distance Relay Applications in Systems Protected by Inverse-Time–Overcurrent Relays
    16. 12.16 Ground-Fault Protection for Lines
    17. 12.17 Distance Protection for Ground Faults and Direction Overcurrent Comparisons
    18. 12.18 Fault Resistance and Relaying
    19. 12.19 Directional Sensing for Ground–Overcurrent Relays
    20. 12.20 Polarizing Problems with Autotransformers
    21. 12.21 Voltage Polarization Limitations
    22. 12.22 Dual Polarization for Ground Relaying
    23. 12.23 Ground Directional Sensing with Negative Sequence
    24. 12.24 Mutual Coupling and Ground Relaying
    25. 12.25 Ground Distance Relaying with Mutual Induction
    26. 12.26 Long EHV Series-Compensated Line Protection
    27. 12.27 Backup: Remote, Local, and Breaker Failure
    28. 12.28 Summary: Typical Protection for Lines
    29. 12.29 Practical Considerations of Line Protection
    30. Bibliography
  18. Chapter 13 - Pilot Protection
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Pilot System Classifications
    3. 13.3 Protection Channel Classifications
    4. 13.4 Directional Comparison Blocking Pilot Systems
    5. 13.5 Directional Comparison Unblocking Pilot System
      1. 13.5.1 Normal-Operating Condition (No Faults)
      2. 13.5.2 Channel Failure
      3. 13.5.3 External Fault on Bus G or in the System to the Left
      4. 13.5.4 Internal Faults in the Protected Zone
    6. 13.6 Directional Comparison Overreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems
      1. 13.6.1 External Fault on Bus G or in the System to the Left
      2. 13.6.2 Internal Faults in the Protected Zone
    7. 13.7 Directional Comparison Underreaching Transfer Trip Pilot Systems
      1. 13.7.1 Zone Acceleration
    8. 13.8 Phase Comparison: Pilot Wire Relaying (Wire Line Channels)
    9. 13.9 Phase Comparison: Audio Tone or Fiber-Optic Channels
      1. 13.9.1 External Fault on Bus H or in the System to the Right
      2. 13.9.2 Internal Faults in the Protected Zone
    10. 13.10 Segregated Phase Comparison Pilot Systems
    11. 13.11 Single-Pole–Selective-Pole Pilot Systems
    12. 13.12 Directional Wave Comparison Systems
    13. 13.13 Digital Current Differential
    14. 13.14 Pilot Scheme Enhancements
      1. 13.14.1 Transient Blocking
      2. 13.14.2 Weak Infeed Logic
      3. 13.14.3 Breaker Open Keying
    15. 13.15 Transfer Trip Systems
    16. 13.16 Communication Channels for Protection
      1. 13.16.1 Power-Line Carrier: On–Off or Frequency Shift
      2. 13.16.2 Pilot Wires: Audio Tone Transmission
      3. 13.16.3 Pilot Wires: 50 or 60 Hz Transmission
      4. 13.16.4 Digital Channels
    17. 13.17 Digital Line Current Differential Systems
      1. 13.17.1 Characteristics of Line Differential Schemes
      2. 13.17.2 Line Differential Issues
        1. 13.17.2.1 Current Sample Alignment
        2. 13.17.2.2 Current Transformer Saturation
        3. 13.17.2.3 Line Charging Current
        4. 13.17.2.4 Sensitivity
      3. 13.17.3 Line Differential Design Enhancements
        1. 13.17.3.1 Sensitivity Enhancement
        2. 13.17.3.2 Maintaining Adequate Data Alignment
        3. 13.17.3.3 Mitigating Impacts of Current Transformer Saturation
        4. 13.17.3.4 Accounting for Line Charging Current
        5. 13.17.3.5 Current-Ratio Differential Concept
      4. 13.17.4 Line Differential Application
    18. 13.18 Pilot Relaying: Operating Experiences
    19. 13.19 Summary
    20. Bibliography
    21. Appendix 13.1 Protection of Wire Line Pilot Circuits
  19. Chapter 14 - Stability, Reclosing, Load Shedding, and Trip Circuit Design
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Electric Power and Power Transmission
    3. 14.3 Steady-State Operation and Stability
    4. 14.4 Transient Operation and Stability
    5. 14.5 System Swings and Protection
    6. 14.6 Out-of-Step Detection by Distance Relays
    7. 14.7 Automatic Line Reclosing
    8. 14.8 Distribution Feeder Reclosing
    9. 14.9 Subtransmission and Transmission-Line Reclosing
    10. 14.10 Reclosing on Lines with Transformers or Reactors
    11. 14.11 Automatic Synchronizing
    12. 14.12 Frequency Relaying for Load Shedding–Load Saving
    13. 14.13 Underfrequency Load-Shedding Design
      1. 14.13.1 Underfrequency Load-Shedding Criteria
      2. 14.13.2 Underfrequency Load-Shedding Scheme Architecture
      3. 14.13.3 Underfrequency Control Scheme Design
    14. 14.14 Performance of Underfrequency Load-Shedding Schemes
    15. 14.15 Frequency Relaying for Industrial Systems
    16. 14.16 Voltage Collapse
    17. 14.17 Voltage Collapse Mitigating Techniques
    18. 14.18 Protection and Control Trip Circuits
    19. 14.19 Substation DC Systems
    20. 14.20 Trip Circuit Devices
      1. 14.20.1 Auxiliary Relays
      2. 14.20.2 Targeting and Seal-In Devices
      3. 14.20.3 Switches and Diodes
      4. 14.20.4 Trip Coils
    21. 14.21 Trip Circuit Design
    22. 14.22 Trip Circuit Monitoring and Alarms
    23. 14.23 Special Protection Schemes
    24. 14.24 Practical Considerations: Special Protection Schemes
    25. Bibliography
  20. Chapter 15 - Microprocessor Applications and Substation Automation
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Microprocessor-Based Relay Designs
    3. 15.3 Programmable Logic Controllers
    4. 15.4 Application of Microprocessor Relays
    5. 15.5 Programming of Microprocessor Relaying
      1. 15.5.1 Boolean Algebra
      2. 15.5.2 Control Equation Elements
      3. 15.5.3 Binary Elements
      4. 15.5.4 Analog Quantities
      5. 15.5.5 Math Operators
      6. 15.5.6 Settings
    6. 15.6 Attributes of Microprocessor-Based Relays
    7. 15.7 Protection Enhancements
      1. 15.7.1 Distribution Protection Systems
      2. 15.7.2 Transmission Protection Systems
    8. 15.8 Multifunctional Capability
    9. 15.9 Wiring Simplification
    10. 15.10 Event Reports
      1. 15.10.1 Types of Event Reports
    11. 15.11 Commissioning and Periodic Testing
    12. 15.12 Setting Specifications and Documentation
    13. 15.13 Fault Location
    14. 15.14 Power System Automation
    15. 15.15 Practical Observations: Microprocessor Relay Application
    16. Bibliography
  21. Chapter 16 - Improving Protective System Performance
    1. 16.1 Performance Measurement Techniques
    2. 16.2 Measuring Protective System Performance
    3. 16.3 Analyzing Protective System Misoperations
      1. 16.3.1 Parameters for Measuring Protective System Performance
      2. 16.3.2 Regulatory Issues
    4. 16.4 NERC Standard PRC-004
    5. 16.5 Procedures for Implementing PRC-004
    6. 16.6 Tools for Analyzing Power System Events
      1. 16.6.1 Fault Recorders
      2. 16.6.2 Dynamic Disturbance Recorders
      3. 16.6.3 Sequence-of-Events Recorders
    7. 16.7 Overview of Major Power Outages
      1. 16.7.1 Northeast Blackout (November 9, 1965)
      2. 16.7.2 West Coast Blackout (July 2, 1996)
      3. 16.7.3 Northeast United States/Canadian Blackout (August 14, 2003)
      4. 16.7.4 Florida Blackout (February 26, 2008)
      5. 16.7.5 Pacific Southwest Outage (September 8, 2011)
      6. 16.7.6 Summary
    8. 16.8 Relay Setting Loadability
      1. 16.8.1 Three-Terminal Lines
      2. 16.8.2 Remote Backup Protection
    9. 16.9 NERC Standard PRC-023
      1. 16.9.1 Loadability of Distance Relays
      2. 16.9.2 Requirements for Transformer Overload Settings
      3. 16.9.3 Loadability of Pilot Schemes
        1. 16.9.3.1 Loadability of DCB Pilot Schemes
        2. 16.9.3.2 Loadability of POTT Pilot Schemes
      4. 16.9.4 Switch-On-to-Fault Loadability
    10. 16.10 Loadability Limits on Non-BES Lines
    11. 16.11 Generator Trips during Disturbances
    12. 16.12 Protection System Maintenance
    13. 16.13 Grid Automation: Protection Aspects
    14. 16.14 Summary
    15. Bibliography
  22. Chapter 17 - Problems
    1. Chapter 2
    2. Chapter 3
    3. Chapter 4
    4. Chapter 5
    5. Chapter 7
    6. Chapter 8
    7. Chapter 9
    8. Chapter 10
    9. Chapter 11
    10. Chapter 12
    11. Chapter 13
    12. Chapter 14
    13. Chapter 16