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Project Management by Lewis R. Ireland, David L. Cleland

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CHAPTER 22CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT1

“A culture is in its finest hour before it begins to analyze itself.”

ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, 1861–1947

22.1 INTRODUCTION

The concept of a culture arose from studies performed by anthropologists who studied ancient societies. A culture of a particular social group—such as a nationality, race, or, in modern terms, an organization, is essentially a “way of life” in that society. In this chapter the term culture is used to described the collective values, beliefs, customs, knowledge, practices, attitudes, mores, and history of a business organization—more particularly in a project-driven organization. As an organization becomes involved in the use of project management to manage change in ...

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