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Programming Google App Engine, 2nd Edition by Dan Sanderson

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Chapter 13. Fetching URLs and Web Resources

An App Engine application can connect to other sites on the Internet to retrieve data and communicate with web services. It does this not by opening a connection to the remote host from the application server, but through a scalable service called the URL Fetch service. This takes the burden of maintaining connections away from the app servers, and ensures that resource fetching performs well regardless of how many request handlers are fetching resources simultaneously. As with other parts of the App Engine infrastructure, the URL Fetch service is used by other Google applications to fetch web pages.

The URL Fetch service supports fetching URLs by using the HTTP protocol, and using HTTP with SSL (HTTPS). Other methods sometimes associated with URLs (such as FTP) are not supported.

Because the URL Fetch service is based on Google infrastructure, the service inherits a few restrictions that were put in place in the original design of the underlying HTTP proxy. The service supports the five most common HTTP actions (GET, POST, PUT, HEAD, and DELETE) but does not allow for others or for using a nonstandard action. Also, it can only connect to TCP ports in several allowed ranges: 80–90, 440–450, and 1024–65535. By default, it uses port 80 for HTTP, and port 443 for HTTPS. The proxy uses HTTP 1.1 to connect to the remote host.

The outgoing request can contain URL parameters, a request body, and HTTP headers. A few headers cannot be modified for ...

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