You are previewing Programming for TV, Radio & The Internet, 2nd Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Programming for TV, Radio & The Internet, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Where do program ideas come from? How are concepts developed into saleable productions? Who do you talk to about getting a show produced? How do you schedule shows on the lineup? What do you do if a series is in trouble? The answers to these questions, and many more, can be found in this comprehensive, in-depth look at the roles and responsibilities of the electronic media programmer. Topics include: Network relationships with affiliates, the expanded market of syndication, sources of programming for stations and networks, research and its role in programming decisions, fundamental appeals to an audience and what qualities are tied to success, outside forces that influence programming, strategies for launching new programs or saving old ones. Includes real-life examples taken from the authors' experiences, and 250+ illustrations!

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Halftitle
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. About the Authors
  8. Preface
  9. 1 The History of Programming
    1. The Need for Programming
    2. The Early Days of Programming
    3. The Beginning of Network Programming: A New Lease for Radio
      1. Radio’s Golden Age: The Advertising Agency Years
    4. The Introduction of Television and Its Effect on Radio
    5. Programming Cycles and Trends
    6. Radio Redux: The Switch from Shows to Formats
    7. Television’s Golden Age of Drama
    8. Quiz Shows Take Center Stage
    9. The Television Networks Take Over Programming
    10. The Development of Public Broadcasting
    11. The Financial Interest and Domestic Syndication Rule
    12. The Rise of Independent Stations and Syndicators
    13. The Explosion of Cable
    14. Syndication in Radio
    15. New Networks with Targeted and Niche Programming
    16. The Quest for a Young Demographic
    17. Viewing Patterns and Changing Audience Attention Spans
    18. The Decline of Longform Programming
    19. Supercharged Programming Choices: The Internet
    20. New Media Recording Technologies
    21. The Rise of Consumer-supported Media
    22. The Video Game Explosion
    23. Regulations
    24. Globalization
    25. Exercises
    26. References/Notes
  10. 2 Sources of Television Programming
    1. Beyond the Idea—into the “Deep Pockets”
    2. Major Production Companies
    3. Independent Production Companies
    4. Foreign Production Sources
    5. Networks
    6. Stations
    7. Buyers
    8. Syndicators
    9. Advertisers
    10. In-House Production
    11. Members of the Public
    12. Newspapers, Magazines, and Books
    13. Managers, Agents, and Stars
    14. Exercises
    15. References/Notes
  11. 3 Sources of Radio and Internet Programming
    1. Sources of Programming for Radio
      1. Syndicator/Network Programming
      2. The Purpose of Today’s Radio Networks/Syndicators
      3. From Town to City to Metropolis and Syndication
      4. Sources of Music Programming
      5. Sources of News Programming
      6. Sources of Talk Radio Programming
      7. Sources of Other Programming
      8. Sources of Satellite Radio Programming
      9. Sources of Low-Power FM Programming
    2. Sources of Internet Programming
      1. Every Computer a Potential Source of Programming
      2. Obstacles to Internet Mass Usage
      3. Traditional Media Sources
      4. Internet-Only Sources
      5. Private vs. Public Sources of Programming
    3. Exercises
    4. References/Notes
  12. 4 Development
    1. Television Development
      1. Securing the Rights
      2. Attaching a Star, Writer, or Showrunner During the Development Process
      3. The Role of Agents
      4. Development Deals
      5. Getting Ready for the Pitch: Creating a Log Line
      6. Writing an Effective Log Line
      7. Getting a Meeting
      8. The Pitch Meeting
      9. “Laying Pipe” for a Pass
      10. Fundamentals of the Deal
      11. Public Television Development
      12. Syndication Development
      13. Station Development
      14. The Pilot
      15. Development Ratios
      16. Testing
      17. The Decision
      18. Globalization
    2. Radio Development
      1. Developing a Format
      2. Management and Consultants
      3. Developing Programming
      4. Profit and Other-Than-Profit Motives
      5. Satellite Radio Development
      6. Public Radio Development
    3. Internet Development
      1. History of Internet Development
      2. Traditional Developers Adapt to the Internet
      3. A New Venue for Independent Developers
    4. Exercises
    5. References/Notes
  13. 5 Testing
    1. Television Testing
      1. Awareness Testing
      2. Sampling
      3. Focus Groups
      4. Minitheater Research
      5. Cable-Based Research
      6. Telephone Research
      7. Station Testing
      8. Public Broadcasting
    2. Radio Testing
      1. Sampling
      2. Testing Methodology
      3. Research Areas
      4. Public Radio
    3. Internet Testing
      1. Testing (Or Not) Simulcast Content
      2. Testing Archived and Independently Produced Content
      3. Testing User Friendliness
    4. Does the Research Work?
    5. Exercises
    6. References/Notes
  14. 6 Elements of Successful Programming
    1. Television Programming
      1. Programming Objectives
      2. The Search for a Successful Formula
      3. Industry Professionals Weigh In
      4. Key Elements for Success
    2. Radio Programming
      1. Programming Objectives
      2. Fundamental Appeals to an Audience
      3. Qualities Tied to Success
    3. Internet Programming
      1. Freshness
      2. Targeting Content
      3. Consistency
      4. Innovation
      5. Branding
    4. Exercises
    5. References/Notes
  15. 7 Influences on Television Programming
    1. External Influences on Television
      1. Station Influence
      2. Advertisers
      3. The Family Friendly Programming Forum
      4. Pressure Groups
      5. The Religious Right
      6. Timing
      7. The Media
      8. Academic and Nonprofit Studies
      9. The Government
    2. Internal Influences on Television
      1. The Sales Department
      2. The Finance Department
      3. The Broadcast Standards and Practices Department
      4. The Top Management
      5. The Promotion, Marketing and Research Divisions
    3. Exercises
    4. References/Notes
  16. 8 Influences on Radio and Internet Programming
    1. Influences on Radio Programming
      1. Internal Influences on Radio
      2. External Influences on Radio
    2. Influences on Internet Programming
      1. Internal Influences on Internet Content
      2. External Influences on Internet Content
    3. Exercises
    4. References/Notes
  17. 9 Scheduling Strategies for Television
    1. Television Scheduling
      1. Fitting the Show to the Available Audience
      2. Dayparting
      3. Launching the Show: The First Strategy
      4. Tentpoling
      5. Hammocking
      6. Counterprogramming
      7. Bridging and Supersizing
      8. Blunting
      9. Stacking
      10. Stunting
      11. Crossprogramming
      12. Theming
      13. Stripping
      14. Changing a Show’s Time Slot
      15. Overexposure
      16. Rerunning and Repurposing
      17. Boosting the Audience in Sweep Periods
      18. Patience
    2. Exercises
    3. References/Notes
  18. 10 Scheduling Strategies for Radio and the Internet
    1. Commercial Radio Scheduling
      1. The Clock
      2. Dayparting
      3. Launching
    2. Satellite Radio Scheduling
    3. Public Radio Scheduling
    4. Internet Scheduling
    5. Exercises
    6. References/Notes
  19. 11 Program Evaluation
    1. Television
      1. Nielsen
    2. Commercial Radio
      1. Arbitron
      2. RADAR
    3. The Internet
    4. Do the Ratings Work and Do Samples Sample?
      1. Variables That Affect Rating Accuracy
      2. Rating Techniques
      3. Studies and Investigations
      4. Programming Aberrations
      5. How Programmers Should Use Ratings
    5. Exercises
    6. References/Notes
  20. 12 Changing and Canceling Programs
    1. Television
      1. Unsatisfactory Ratings
      2. Exhaustion
      3. A Lack of Focus
      4. Social Changes
      5. Aging Demographics
      6. The Wrong Time Period
      7. Excessive Relocation
      8. A Lack of Awareness
      9. Bringing on the Understudy
      10. The Desire for Something New
      11. Programming Options
      12. Giving a Cancellation Notice
    2. Radio
      1. Adjusting Program Elements
      2. Network Changes
      3. Dealing with Unwanted Changes
    3. Internet
      1. Is It Worth the Trouble?
      2. TMI:Too Much Information
      3. Facelifts and Add-ons
    4. Exercises
    5. References/Notes
  21. 13 Programming Ethics
    1. The Meaning of Ethics
      1. Ethics and Illegality
      2. Ethics in Programming Decisions and Business Practices
      3. Ethics and Lying
    2. Ethical Guidelines
    3. Considering Ethics
    4. Case Histories: Actual Incidents
      1. Checkbook Journalism
      2. Make the Deal, but Don’t Close It
      3. An On-Air Murder Confession
      4. Sex in Public Places
      5. Sharing the Wealth
      6. Who Is to Blame?
      7. Anonymous Complaints at E!
      8. A Suicide on TV
      9. Images of the Iraqi War
      10. The Right to Privacy
      11. First Amendment vs. the Sixth Amendment
      12. Entertainment Programming Ethics
    5. A Series of Ethical Dilemmas
    6. References/Notes
  22. Glossary
  23. Index