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Programming Entity Framework: Code First by Rowan Miller, Julia Lerman

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What Code First Does Not Support

Code First is a relatively new addition to Entity Framework and there are a few features that it currently does not support. The EF team has indicated that they plan to add support for most of these in future releases.

Database migrations

At the time of writing this book, Code First does not yet support database migrations, or in other words, modifying a database to reflect changes to the model. But work on this feature is well under way and will likely be available shortly after publication. You can read about an early preview of the Migrations support on the team’s blog.

Mapping to views

Code First currently only supports mapping to tables. This unfortunately means that you can’t map Code First directly to stored procedures, views, or other database objects. If you are letting Code First generate a database, there is no way to create these artifacts in the database, other than manually adding them once Code First has created the database. If you are mapping to an existing database, there are some techniques you can use to get data from non-table database artifacts. These techniques are described in Mapping to Nontable Database Objects (Chapter 7).

Schema definition defining queries

Entity Framework includes a DefiningQuery feature that allows you to specify a database query directly in the XML metadata. There is also a Query View feature that allows you to use the conceptual model to define a query that is used to load entities. This allows the query you specify to be database provider–independent. Code First does not support either of these features yet.

Multiple Entity Sets per Type (MEST)

Code First does not support the Multiple Entity Sets per Type (MEST) feature. MEST allows you to use the same class in two different sets that map to two different tables. This is a more obscure Entity Framework feature that is rarely used. The EF team has said that, in an effort to keep the Code First API simpler, they do not plan to add support for MEST.

Conditional column mapping

When working with inheritance hierarchies, Code First also requires that a property is always mapped to a column with the same name. This is referred to as conditional column mapping. For example, you may have a Person base class with a NationalIdentifier property. American and Australian classes that derive from the Person base class are mapped to separate Australians and Americans tables in the database. When using the designer, you could map the NationalIdentifier property to an SSN column in the Americans table and PassportNumber in the Australians table. Code First does not support this scenario. The column that NationalIdentifier maps to must have the same name in every table.

Choosing Code First

Now that you know what Code First is, you may be wondering whether it’s the right modeling workflow for your application development. The good news is that the decision is almost entirely dependent on what development style you, or your team, prefer.

If writing your own POCO classes and then using code to define how they map to a database appeals to you, then Code First is what you are after. As mentioned earlier, Code First can generate a database for you or be used to map to an existing database.

If you prefer to use a designer to define the shape of your classes and how they map to the database, you probably don’t want to use Code First. If you are mapping to an existing database, you will want to use Database First to reverse engineer a model from the database. This entails using Visual Studio’s Entity Data Model Wizard to generate an EDMX based on that database. You can then view and edit the generated model using the designer. If you don’t have a database but want to use a designer, you should consider using Model First to define your model with the designer. You can then create the database based on the model you define. These approaches work well, provided you are happy for EF to generate your classes for you based on the model you create in the designer.

Finally, if you have existing classes that you want to use with EF, you probably want to go with Code First even if your first preference would be for designer-based modeling. If you choose to use the designer, you will need to make any model changes in the designer and in your classes. This is inefficient and error-prone, so you will probably be happier in the long run if you use Code First. In Code First, your classes are your model, so model changes only need to be made in one place and there is no opportunity for things to get out of sync.


A designer tool that the Entity Framework team is working on will provide an additional option—reverse engineering a database into Code First classes and fluent configurations. This tool was created for developers who have an existing database but prefer using Code First to using a designer. You’ll learn more about this tool in Chapter 8.

The decision process for which EF workflow to use can be summarized in the decision tree shown in Figure 1-5.

Workflow decision tree

Figure 1-5. Workflow decision tree

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