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Programming Collective Intelligence

Cover of Programming Collective Intelligence by Toby Segaran Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Programming Collective Intelligence
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Praise for Programming Collective Intelligence
    4. Preface
      1. Prerequisites
      2. Style of Examples
      3. Why Python?
      4. Open APIs
      5. Overview of the Chapters
      6. Conventions
      7. Using Code Examples
      8. How to Contact Us
      9. Safari® Books Online
      10. Acknowledgments
    5. 1. Introduction to Collective Intelligence
      1. What Is Collective Intelligence?
      2. What Is Machine Learning?
      3. Limits of Machine Learning
      4. Real-Life Examples
      5. Other Uses for Learning Algorithms
    6. 2. Making Recommendations
      1. Collaborative Filtering
      2. Collecting Preferences
      3. Finding Similar Users
      4. Recommending Items
      5. Matching Products
      6. Building a del.icio.us Link Recommender
      7. Item-Based Filtering
      8. Using the MovieLens Dataset
      9. User-Based or Item-Based Filtering?
      10. Exercises
    7. 3. Discovering Groups
      1. Supervised versus Unsupervised Learning
      2. Word Vectors
      3. Hierarchical Clustering
      4. Drawing the Dendrogram
      5. Column Clustering
      6. K-Means Clustering
      7. Clusters of Preferences
      8. Viewing Data in Two Dimensions
      9. Other Things to Cluster
      10. Exercises
    8. 4. Searching and Ranking
      1. What's in a Search Engine?
      2. A Simple Crawler
      3. Building the Index
      4. Querying
      5. Content-Based Ranking
      6. Using Inbound Links
      7. Learning from Clicks
      8. Exercises
    9. 5. Optimization
      1. Group Travel
      2. Representing Solutions
      3. The Cost Function
      4. Random Searching
      5. Hill Climbing
      6. Simulated Annealing
      7. Genetic Algorithms
      8. Real Flight Searches
      9. Optimizing for Preferences
      10. Network Visualization
      11. Other Possibilities
      12. Exercises
    10. 6. Document Filtering
      1. Filtering Spam
      2. Documents and Words
      3. Training the Classifier
      4. Calculating Probabilities
      5. A Naïve Classifier
      6. The Fisher Method
      7. Persisting the Trained Classifiers
      8. Filtering Blog Feeds
      9. Improving Feature Detection
      10. Using Akismet
      11. Alternative Methods
      12. Exercises
    11. 7. Modeling with Decision Trees
      1. Predicting Signups
      2. Introducing Decision Trees
      3. Training the Tree
      4. Choosing the Best Split
      5. Recursive Tree Building
      6. Displaying the Tree
      7. Classifying New Observations
      8. Pruning the Tree
      9. Dealing with Missing Data
      10. Dealing with Numerical Outcomes
      11. Modeling Home Prices
      12. Modeling "Hotness"
      13. When to Use Decision Trees
      14. Exercises
    12. 8. Building Price Models
      1. Building a Sample Dataset
      2. k-Nearest Neighbors
      3. Weighted Neighbors
      4. Cross-Validation
      5. Heterogeneous Variables
      6. Optimizing the Scale
      7. Uneven Distributions
      8. Using Real Data—the eBay API
      9. When to Use k-Nearest Neighbors
      10. Exercises
    13. 9. Advanced Classification: Kernel Methods and SVMs
      1. Matchmaker Dataset
      2. Difficulties with the Data
      3. Basic Linear Classification
      4. Categorical Features
      5. Scaling the Data
      6. Understanding Kernel Methods
      7. Support-Vector Machines
      8. Using LIBSVM
      9. Matching on Facebook
      10. Exercises
    14. 10. Finding Independent Features
      1. A Corpus of News
      2. Previous Approaches
      3. Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
      4. Displaying the Results
      5. Using Stock Market Data
      6. Exercises
    15. 11. EVOLVING INTELLIGENCE
      1. What Is Genetic Programming?
      2. Programs As Trees
      3. Creating the Initial Population
      4. Testing a Solution
      5. Mutating Programs
      6. Crossover
      7. Building the Environment
      8. A Simple Game
      9. Further Possibilities
      10. Exercises
    16. 12. Algorithm Summary
      1. Bayesian Classifier
      2. Decision Tree Classifier
      3. Neural Networks
      4. Support-Vector Machines
      5. k-Nearest Neighbors
      6. Clustering
      7. Multidimensional Scaling
      8. Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
      9. Optimization
    17. A. Third-Party Libraries
      1. Universal Feed Parser
      2. Python Imaging Library
      3. Beautiful Soup
      4. pysqlite
      5. NumPy
      6. matplotlib
      7. pydelicious
    18. B. Mathematical Formulas
      1. Euclidean Distance
      2. Pearson Correlation Coefficient
      3. Weighted Mean
      4. Tanimoto Coefficient
      5. Conditional Probability
      6. Gini Impurity
      7. Entropy
      8. Variance
      9. Gaussian Function
      10. Dot-Products
    19. Index
    20. About the Author
    21. Colophon
    22. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Chapter 10. Finding Independent Features

Most of the chapters so far have focused primarily on supervised classifiers, except Chapter 3, which was about unsupervised techniques called clustering. This chapter will look at ways to extract the important underlying features from sets of data that are not labeled with specific outcomes. Like clustering, these methods do not seek to make predictions as much as they try to characterize the data and tell you interesting things about it.

You'll recall from Chapter 3 that clustering assigns every row in a dataset to a group or point in a hierarchy—each item fits into exactly one group that represents the average of the members. Feature extraction is a more general form of this idea; it tries to find new data rows that can be used in combination to reconstruct rows of the original dataset. Rather than belonging to one cluster, each row is created from a combination of the features.

One of the classic problems illustrating the need to find independent features is known as the cocktail party problem, the problem of interpreting conversation when many people are talking. A remarkable feature of the human auditory system is our ability to focus on a single voice in a room full of people talking, despite the fact that a mixture of all the different voices is reaching our ears. The brain is quite adept at separating the independent sounds that create all the noise it's hearing. By using algorithms like the one described in this chapter, and getting ...

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