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In the previous chapter you were introduced to the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, and the concepts of Servlets, filters, and other Java EE components. You also learned about some of the new features in Java 7 and 8. Java EE web applications run within Java EE application servers and web containers (also known as Servlet containers, and this book uses the terms interchangeably).
Although the Java EE specification is full of many smaller sub-specifications, most web containers implement only the Servlet, JSP, and JSTL specifications. This is different from full-blown Java EE application servers, which implement the entire Java EE specification. Every application server contains a web container, which is responsible for managing the life cycle of Servlets, mapping request URLs to Servlet code, accepting and responding ...