This chapter provides the basic process of material selection in a product development endeavor and discusses the factors that need to be considered during the material selection phase of a product development process. It also discusses the economics of material selection viz. material cost, direct and indirect labor costs, tooling costs, and capital investment. It then discusses the procedures utilized for material selection based on family of materials, the processing capability of materials, and the concepts of super materials, material substitution, and computer-based material selection. This chapter then provides some very pointed design recommendations for the some families of materials.