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Product Design by Paul Rodgers, Alex Milton

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The Great Reform movements: 1850s to 1914

By the middle of the nineteenth century, the awful conditions in factories led to widespread worker unrest and the formation of workers’ unions and parties. In 1867 Karl Marx (1818–83) wrote Das Kapital, one of the most important socioeconomic books ever produced, in which he analyzed the new structures of industrial production and society. The increasing mechanization of the Industrial Revolution encompassed not only production methods but the products themselves. The nineteenth century was the time of the engineer, and by the middle of that century the United States had taken over the leadership of engineering developments. In 1869, the east and west coasts of America were united by the Union Pacific ...

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