You are previewing Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation.
O'Reilly logo
Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation

Book Description

Master process control hands on, through practical examples and MATLAB® simulations

This is the first complete introduction to process control that fully integrates software tools—enabling professionals and students to master critical techniques hands on, through computer simulations based on the popular MATLAB environment. Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation teaches the field's most important techniques, behaviors, and control problems through practical examples, supplemented by extensive exercises—with detailed derivations, relevant software files, and additional techniques available on a companion Web site. Coverage includes:

  • Fundamentals of process control and instrumentation, including objectives, variables, and block diagrams

  • Methodologies for developing dynamic models of chemical processes

  • Dynamic behavior of linear systems: state space models, transfer function-based

  • models, and more

  • Feedback control; proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controllers; and closed-loop stability analysis

  • Frequency response analysis techniques for evaluating the robustness of control systems

  • Improving control loop performance: internal model control (IMC), automatic tuning, gain scheduling, and enhancements to improve disturbance rejection

  • Split-range, selective, and override strategies for switching among inputs or outputs

  • Control loop interactions and multivariable controllers

  • An introduction to model predictive control (MPC)

Bequette walks step by step through the development of control instrumentation diagrams for an entire chemical process, reviewing common control strategies for individual unit operations, then discussing strategies for integrated systems. The book also includes 16 learning modules demonstrating how to use MATLAB and SIMULINK to solve several key control problems, ranging from robustness analyses to biochemical reactors, biomedical problems to multivariable control.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. PRENTICE HALL INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCES
  3. About Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  4. Preface
  5. Introduction
    1. Introduction
    2. Instrumentation
    3. Process Models and Dynamic Behavior
    4. Control Textbooks and Journals
    5. A Look Ahead
    6. Summary
    7. Student Exercises
  6. Fundamental Models
    1. Background
    2. Balance Equations
    3. Material Balances
    4. Constitutive Relationships
    5. Material and Energy Balances
    6. Form of Dynamic Models
    7. Linear Models and Deviation Variables
    8. Summary
    9. Suggested Reading
    10. Student Exercises
    11. Appendix 2.1: Solving Algebraic Equations
    12. Appendix 2.2: Integrating Ordinary Differential Equations
  7. Dynamic Behavior
    1. Background
    2. Linear State Space Models
    3. Introduction to Laplace Transforms
    4. Transfer Functions
    5. First-Order Behavior
    6. Integrating System
    7. Second-Order Behavior
    8. Lead-Lag Behavior
    9. Poles and Zeros
    10. Processes with Dead Time
    11. Padé Approximation for Dead Time
    12. Converting State Space Models to Transfer Functions
    13. MATLAB and SIMULINK
    14. Summary
    15. References
    16. Student Exercises
  8. Empirical Models
    1. Introduction
    2. First-Order + Dead Time
    3. Integrator + Dead Time
    4. Discrete-Time Autoregressive Models
    5. Parameter Estimation
    6. Discrete Step and Impulse Response Models
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Student Exercises
    10. Appendix 4.1: Files Used to Generate Example 4.4
    11. Appendix 4.2
  9. Introduction to Feedback Control
    1. Motivation
    2. Development of Control Block Diagrams
    3. Response to Setpoint Changes
    4. PID Controller Algorithms
    5. Routh Stability Criterion
    6. Effect of Tuning Parameters
    7. Response to Disturbances
    8. Open-Loop Unstable Systems
    9. SIMULINK Block Diagrams
    10. Summary
    11. References
    12. Student Exercises
  10. PID Controller Tuning
    1. Introduction
    2. Closed-Loop Oscillation-Based Tuning
    3. Tuning Rules for First-Order + Dead Time Processes
    4. Direct Synthesis
    5. Summary
    6. References
    7. Student Exercises
  11. Frequency-Response Analysis
    1. Motivation
    2. Bode and Nyquist Plots
    3. Effect of Process Parameters on Bode and Nyquist Plots
    4. Closed-Loop Stability Concepts
    5. Bode and Nyquist Stability
    6. Robustness
    7. MATLAB Control Toolbox: Bode and Nyquist Functions
    8. Summary
    9. Reference
    10. Student Exercises
  12. Internal Model Control
    1. Introduction to Model-Based Control
    2. Practical Open-Loop Controller Design
    3. Generalization of the Open-Loop Control Design Procedure
    4. Model Uncertainty and Disturbances
    5. Development of the IMC Structure
    6. IMC Background
    7. The IMC Structure
    8. The IMC Design Procedure
    9. Effect of Model Uncertainty and Disturbances
    10. Improved Disturbance Rejection Design
    11. Manipulated Variable Saturation
    12. Summary
    13. References
    14. Student Exercises
    15. Appendix 8.1: Derivation of Closed-Loop Relationships for IMC
  13. The IMC-Based PID Procedure
    1. Background
    2. The Equivalent Feedback Form to IMC
    3. IMC-Based Feedback Design for Delay-Free Processes
    4. IMC-Based Feedback Design for Processes with a Time Delay
    5. Summary of IMC-Based PID Controller Design for Stable Processes
    6. IMC-Based PID Controller Design for Unstable Processes
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Student Exercises
  14. Cascade and Feed-Forward Control
    1. Background
    2. Introduction to Cascade Control
    3. Cascade-Control Analysis
    4. Cascade-Control Design
    5. Cascade IMC
    6. Feed-Forward Control
    7. Feed-Forward Controller Design
    8. Feed-Forward Control in the IMC Structure
    9. Summary of Feed-Forward Control
    10. Combined Feed-Forward and Cascade
    11. Summary
    12. References
    13. Student Exercises—Cascade Control
    14. Student Exercises—Feed-Forward Control
    15. Student Exercises—Feed-Forward and Cascade
  15. PID Enhancements
    1. Background
    2. Antireset Windup
    3. Autotuning Techniques
    4. Nonlinear PID Control
    5. Controller Parameter (Gain) Scheduling
    6. Measurement/Actuator Selection
    7. Implementing PID Enhancements in Simulink
    8. Summary
    9. References
    10. Student Exercises
  16. Ratio, Selective, and Split-Range Control
    1. Motivation
    2. Ratio Control
    3. Selective and Override Control
    4. Split-Range Control
    5. Simulink Functions
    6. Summary
    7. References
    8. Student Exercises
  17. Control-Loop Interaction
    1. Introduction
    2. Motivation
    3. The General Pairing Problem
    4. The Relative Gain Array
    5. Properties and Application of the RGA
    6. Return to the Motivating Example
    7. RGA and Sensitivity
    8. Using the RGA to Determine Variable Pairings
    9. MATLAB RGA Function File
    10. Summary
    11. References
    12. Student Exercises
    13. Appendix 13.1: Derivation of the Relative Gain for an n-Input–n-Output System
    14. Appendix 13.2: m-File to Calculate the RGA
  18. Multivariable Control
    1. Background
    2. Zeros and Performance Limitations
    3. Scaling Considerations
    4. Directional Sensitivity and Operability
    5. Block-Diagram Analysis
    6. Decoupling
    7. IMC
    8. MATLAB tzero, svd, and LTI Functions
    9. Summary
    10. References
    11. Student Exercises
    12. Appendix 14.1
  19. Plantwide Control
    1. Background
    2. Steady-State and Dynamic Effects of Recycle
    3. Unit Operations Not Previously Covered
    4. The Control and Optimization Hierarchy
    5. Further Plantwide Control Examples
    6. Simulations
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Student Exercises
  20. Model Predictive Control
    1. Motivation
    2. Optimization Problem
    3. Dynamic Matrix Control
    4. Constraints and Multivariable Systems
    5. Other MPC Methods
    6. Matlab
    7. Summary
    8. References and Relevant Literature
    9. Student Exercises
    10. Appendix 16.1: Derivation of the Step Response Formulation
    11. Appendix 16.2: Derivation of the Least Squares Solution for Control Moves
    12. Appendix 16.3
  21. Summary
    1. Overview of Topics Covered in This Textbook
    2. Process Engineering in Practice
    3. Suggested Further Reading
    4. Notation
    5. Student Exercises
  22. Introduction to MATLAB
    1. Background
    2. Matrix Operations
    3. The MATLAB Workspace
    4. Complex Variables
    5. Plotting
    6. More Matrix Stuff
    7. For Loops
    8. m-Files
    9. Summary of Commonly Used Commands
    10. Frequently Used MATLAB Functions
    11. Additional Exercises
  23. Introduction to SIMULINK
    1. Background
    2. Open-Loop Simulations
    3. Feedback-Control Simulations
    4. Developing Alternative Controller Icons
    5. Summary
    6. Additional Exercises
  24. Ordinary Differential Equations
    1. MATLAB ode—Basic
    2. MATLAB ode—Options
    3. SIMULINK sfun (.mdl Files)
    4. SIMULINK sfun (.mdl Files)—Advanced
    5. Summary
  25. MATLAB LTI Models
    1. Forming Continuous-Time Models
    2. Forming Discrete-Time Models
    3. Converting Continuous Models to Discrete
    4. Converting Discrete Models to Continuous
    5. Step and Impulse Responses
    6. Summary
    7. Reference
    8. Additional Exercises
  26. Isothermal Chemical Reactor
    1. Background
    2. Model (Chapter 2)
    3. Steady-State and Dynamic Behavior (Chapter 3)
    4. Classical Feedback Control (Chapters 5 and 6)
    5. Internal Model Control (Chapter 8)
    6. Reference
    7. Additional Exercises
  27. First-Order + Time-Delay Processes
    1. Motivation
    2. Closed-Loop Time-Domain Simulation
    3. Bode Analysis
    4. Ziegler-Nichols Tuning
    5. IMC-Based PID Control
    6. Summary
    7. References
    8. Additional Exercises
    9. Appendix M6.1
  28. Biochemical Reactors
    1. Background
    2. Steady-State and Dynamic Behavior
    3. Stable Steady-State Operating Point
    4. Unstable Steady-State Operating Point
    5. SIMULINK Model File
    6. Reference
    7. Additional Exercises
  29. CSTR
    1. Background
    2. Simplified Modeling Equations
    3. Example Chemical Process—Propylene Glycol Production
    4. Effect of Reactor Scale
    5. For Further Study: Detailed Model
    6. Other Considerations
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Additional Exercises
    10. Appendix M8.1
  30. Steam Drum Level
    1. Background
    2. Process Model
    3. Feedback Controller Design
    4. Feed-Forward Controller Design
    5. Three-Mode Level Control
    6. Appendix M9.1: SIMULINK Diagram for Feed-Forward/Feedback Control of Steam Drum Level
    7. Appendix M9.2: SIMULINK Diagram for 3-Mode Control of Steam Drum Level
  31. Surge Vessel Level Control
    1. Background
    2. Process Model
    3. Controller Design
    4. Numerical Example
    5. Summary
    6. Reference
    7. Additional Exercises
    8. Appendix M10.1: The SIMULINK Block Diagram
  32. Batch Reactor
    1. Background
    2. Batch Model 1: Jacket Temperature Manipulated
    3. Batch Model 2: Jacket Inlet Temperature Manipulated
    4. Batch Model 3: Cascade Control
    5. Summary
    6. Reference
    7. Additional Exercises
  33. Biomedical Systems
    1. Overview
    2. Pharmacokinetic Models
    3. Intravenous Delivery of Anesthetic Drugs
    4. Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients
    5. Blood Pressure Control in Post-Operative Patients
    6. Critical Care Patients
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Additional Exercises
  34. Distillation Control
    1. Description of Distillation Control
    2. Open-Loop Behavior
    3. SISO Control
    4. RGA Analysis
    5. Multiple SISO Controllers
    6. Singular Value Analysis
    7. Nonlinear Effects
    8. Other Issues in Distillation Column Control
    9. Summary
    10. References
    11. Additional Exercises
    12. Appendix M13.1
  35. Case Study Problems
    1. Background
    2. Reactive Ion Etcher
    3. Rotary Lime Kiln Temperature Control
    4. Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit
    5. Anaerobic Sludge Digester
    6. Drug Infusion System
    7. Suggested Case Study Schedule
    8. Summary
    9. Additional Exercises
  36. Flow Control
    1. Motivating Example
    2. Flowmeters
    3. Control Valves
    4. Pumping and Piping Systems
    5. Summary
    6. References
    7. Additional Exercises
  37. Digital Control
    1. Background
    2. PID Controllers
    3. Stability Analysis for Digital Control Systems
    4. Performance of Digital Control Systems
    5. Discrete IMC
    6. Summary
    7. References
    8. Additional Exercises
    9. Appendix M16.1: SIMULINK .mdl File for Example M16.2
    10. Appendix M16.2: SIMULINK .m and .mdl Files for Example M16.3
  38. About the Author