# Appendix B

# A Few Math Facts

This text assumes that the reader knows a variety of mathematical facts. Often these facts go unstated. For example, we use many properties of limits, derivatives, and integrals. Generally, we have omitted comment or reference to mathematical techniques typically employed by engineering students.

However, when we employ math techniques that a student may have forgotten, the result can be confusion. It becomes difficult to separate the math facts from the probability facts. To decrease the likelihood of this event, we have summarized certain key mathematical facts. In the text, we have noted when we use these facts. If any of these facts are unfamiliar, we encourage the reader to consult with a textbook in that area.

**Trigonometric Identities**

### Math Fact B.1Half Angle Formulas

### Math Fact B.2Products of Sinusoids

### Math Fact B.3The Euler Formula

The Euler formula *e*