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Pro Linux High Availability Clustering

Book Description

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Pro Linux High Availability Clustering teaches you how to implement this fundamental Linux add-on into your business. Linux High Availability Clustering is needed to ensure the availability of mission critical resources. The technique is applied more and more in corporate datacenters around the world. While lots of documentation about the subject is available on the internet, it isn't always easy to build a real solution based on that scattered information, which is often oriented towards specific tasks only. Pro Linux High Availability Clustering explains essential high-availability clustering components on all Linux platforms, giving you the insight to build solutions for any specific case needed.

In this book four common cases will be explained:

  • Configuring Apache for high availability
  • Creating an Open Source SAN based on DRBD, iSCSI and HA clustering
  • Setting up a load-balanced web server cluster with a back-end, highly-available database
  • Setting up a KVM virtualization platform with high-availability protection for a virtual machine.

With the knowledge you'll gain from these real-world applications, you'll be able to efficiently apply Linux HA to your work situation with confidence.

Author Sander Van Vugt teaches Linux high-availability clustering on training courses, uses it in his everyday work, and now brings this knowledge to you in one place, with clear examples and cases. Make the best start with HA clustering with Pro Linux High Availability Clustering at your side.

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Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents
  7. About the Author
  8. About the Technical Reviewers
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Introduction
  11. Chapter 1: High Availability Clustering and Its Architecture
    1. Different Kinds of Clustering
      1. High Performance Clusters
      2. Load Balancing Clusters
      3. High Availability Clusters
    2. What to Expect from High Availability Clusters
    3. History of High Availability Clustering in Linux
      1. Heartbeat 2.0 and Red Hat Cluster Suite
      2. Cluster Membership and Resource Management
    4. The Components That Build a High Availability Cluster
      1. Shared Storage
      2. Different Networks
      3. Bonded Network Devices
      4. Multipathing
      5. Fencing/STONITH Devices and Quorum
    5. Summary
  12. Chapter 2: Configuring Storage
    1. Why Most Clusters Need Shared Storage
    2. NAS or SAN?
      1. NAS
      2. SAN
    3. iSCSI or Fibre Channel?
      1. Understanding iSCSI
    4. Configuring the LIO iSCSI Target
    5. Connecting to an iSCSI SAN
      1. Step 1: discovery Mode
      2. Step 2: node Mode
      3. Step 3: Managing the iSCSI Connection
      4. Disconnecting an iSCSI Session
    6. Setting Up Multipathing
      1. /etc/multipath.conf
      2. Specific Use Cases for Multipath
    7. Summary
  13. Chapter 3: Configuring the Membership Layer
    1. Configuring the Network
      1. Network Bonding Modes
      2. Configuring the Bond Interface
    2. Dealing with Multicast
    3. corosync or cman?
    4. Configuring corosync
      1. Understanding corosync.conf Settings
      2. Networks Without Multicast Support
    5. Configuring cman
    6. Summary
  14. Chapter 4: Understanding Pacemaker Architecture and Management
    1. Pacemaker Related to Other Parts of the Cluster
      1. Resource Agents
      2. corosync/cman
      3. The Storage Layer
    2. Pacemaker Internal Components
      1. Cluster Information Base
      2. crmd
      3. pengine
      4. lrmd
      5. stonithd/fenced
    3. Cluster Management Tools
      1. crm shell
      2. Hawk
      3. Other Tools
      4. Conga: Luci and Ricci
    4. Summary
  15. Chapter 5: Configuring Essential Cluster Settings
    1. Specifying Default Cluster Settings
      1. no-quorum-policy
      2. default-resource-stickiness
      3. stonith-action
    2. Setting Up STONITH
      1. Different Solutions
      2. Setting Up libvirt Hypervisor-Based STONITH
      3. Setting Up Hardware-Based STONITH: The APC Master Power Switch
      4. Configuring STONITH for Dell DRAC and Other Server Management Cards, Such As HP ILO
      5. IPMI and Other Management Boards
      6. Setting Up Shared Disk-Based STONITH
    3. Using Fencing on Red Hat Clusters
    4. Summary
  16. Chapter 6: Clustering Resources
    1. What Makes Clustered Resources Different
      1. Clustering an Apache File Server
    2. Creating Resources
    3. Grouping Resources
    4. Working with Constraints
      1. Constraint Types
      2. Understanding Scores
    5. Testing the Configuration
    6. Understanding Resource Agent Scripts
    7. Summary
  17. Chapter 7: Clustering Storage
    1. Using a Cluster File System
    2. Configuring an OCFS2 File System
      1. Understanding Clone Resources
      2. LVM2 in Cluster Environments
      3. OCFS2 on Top of cLVM2
    3. Using GFS2 with Pacemaker
    4. Summary
  18. Chapter 8: Performing Daily Cluster Management Tasks
    1. Starting and Stopping Resources
    2. Monitoring Resource State
    3. Resource Migration
    4. Using Resource Cleanup
    5. Managing Nodes
    6. Using Unmanaged Mode and Maintenance Mode for Maintenance
    7. Understanding Log Files
    8. Backup and Restore of the Cluster Configuration
    9. Wipe Everything and Start All Over
    10. Summary
  19. Chapter 9: Creating an Open Source SAN
    1. Creating an Open Source SAN with Pacemaker
    2. Configuring RAID 1 over the Network with DRBD
      1. Precautionary Measures
      2. Creating the Configuration
      3. Working with the DRBD
      4. Troubleshooting the Disconnect State
      5. Working with Dual Primary Mode
    3. Integrating DRBD in Pacemaker Clusters
      1. Testing
    4. Adding an iSCSI Target to the Open Source SAN
      1. Creating an Open Source SAN with LVM
      2. Setting Up the iSCSI Target in the Cluster
    5. Summary
  20. Chapter 10: Use Case: Creating a Solution for Xen/KVM High Availability
    1. Introduction: An Overview of Open Source Virtualization Solutions
      1. Xen
      2. KVM
    2. Requirements for Setting Up an HA Solution for Virtual Machines
    3. Example of a Virtual Machine HA Cluster
    4. Creating a KVM HA Cluster
      1. Creating the Base Cluster
      2. Configure the SAN for Shared Storage
      3. Installing a KVM Virtual Machine
      4. Setting Up Cluster Resources for the KVM Virtual Machine
    5. Summary
  21. Chapter 11: Use Case: Configuring a Load-Balanced Mail Front End with a Database Back End
    1. Customer Situation
    2. Database Back End
    3. Mail Front End
    4. One Big Cluster or Many Little Clusters?
    5. Summary
  22. Index