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Printed Films

Book Description

Whilst printed films are currently used in varied devices across a wide range of fields, research into their development and properties is increasingly uncovering even greater potential. Printed films provides comprehensive coverage of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications.

Materials and properties of printed films are the focus of part one, beginning with a review of the concepts, technologies and materials involved in their production and use. Printed films as electrical components and silicon metallization for solar cells are discussed, as are conduction mechanisms in printed film resistors, and thick films in packaging and microelectronics. Part two goes on to review the varied applications of printed films in devices. Printed resistive sensors are considered, as is the role of printed films in capacitive, piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors, mechanical micro-systems and gas sensors. The applications of printed films in biosensors, actuators, heater elements, varistors and polymer solar cells are then explored, followed by a review of screen printing for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells and laser printed micro- and meso-scale power generating devices.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Printed films is a key text for anyone working in such fields as microelectronics, fuel cell and sensor technology in both industry and academia.

  • Provides a comprehensive analysis of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications
  • Reviews the concepts, properties, technologies and materials involved in the production and use of printed films
  • Analyses the varied applications of printed films in devices, including printed restrictive sensors for physical quantities and printed thick film mechanical micro-systems (MEMS), among others

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Dedication
  8. Preface
  9. Part I: Materials and properties of printed films
    1. Chapter 1: Technologies for printed films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction: printed films in microelectronics
      3. 1.2 From thick-films and hybrids to printed electronics
      4. 1.3 Other systems
      5. 1.4 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Materials for printed films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Active phases
      4. 2.3 Deposition medium – vehicle
      5. 2.4 Glasses and glass ceramics
      6. 2.5 Substrates
      7. 2.6 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3: Materials Science concepts for printed films
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Interactions of conducting materials with the organic vehicle at room temperature
      4. 3.3 Redox reactions
      5. 3.4 Chemical diffusion-related interactions during the firing cycle
      6. 3.5 Sintering, grain growth and Ostwald ripening
      7. 3.6 Reactivity interactions in other systems
      8. 3.7 The Kirkendall effect
      9. 3.8 Conclusions and future trends
    4. Chapter 4: Properties of printed films as electrical components and metallization of solar cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Thick-film resistors
      4. 4.3 Conductors
      5. 4.4 Dielectrics
    5. Chapter 5: Conduction mechanisms in printed thick-film resistors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Current understanding of the conduction mechanism in thick-film resistors
      4. 5.3 Conclusion and future trends
    6. Chapter 6: Multilayer low-temperature co-fired ceramic systems incorporating a thick-film printing process
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) compositions
      4. 6.3 LTCC manufacturing methods
      5. 6.4 An overview of LTCC applications
      6. 6.5 Future trends
      7. 6.6 Sources of further information
  10. Part II: Applications of printed films in devices
    1. Chapter 7: Printed resistive sensors for physical quantities
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Temperature sensors
      4. 7.3 Piezoresistive properties and related sensors
      5. 7.4 Magnetoresistive effects and sensors
      6. 7.5 Radiant sensors
      7. 7.6 Potentiometric sensors
      8. 7.7 Conclusion and future trends
    2. Chapter 8: Printed thick-film capacitive sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 General concepts
      4. 8.3 Configurations and technologies
      5. 8.4 Capacitive sensing based on geometrical variations
      6. 8.5 Capacitive sensing based on permittivity variations
      7. 8.6 Examples of devices and their applications
      8. 8.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 8.8 Sources of further information
    3. Chapter 9: Printed thick-film piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity
      4. 9.3 Basic theory and relationships of the piezoelectric effect
      5. 9.4 Thick-films based on ferroelectric inorganic compounds
      6. 9.5 Piezoelectric sensors
      7. 9.6 Pyroelectric sensors
      8. 9.7 Future trends
      9. 9.8 Sources of further information
      10. 9.9 Acknowledgments
    4. Chapter 10: Printed thick-film mechanical microsystems (MEMS)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Printed films with silicon MEMS
      4. 10.3 Printed films with ceramic MEMS
      5. 10.4 Conclusion and future trends
    5. Chapter 11: Printed semiconducting gas sensors
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Principles of operation and modeling
      4. 11.3 Functional materials
      5. 11.4 Morphological, structural and electrical properties
      6. 11.5 Applications
      7. 11.6 Future trends
      8. 11.7 Acknowledgments
    6. Chapter 12: Printed gas sensors based on electrolytes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Solid electrolytes
      4. 12.3 Potentiometric sensors
      5. 12.4 Thermodynamically controlled sensors
      6. 12.5 Sensors controlled by both thermodynamics and kinetics
      7. 12.6 Amperometric sensors
      8. 12.7 NOx sensing device, associating upstream oxygen pumping with potentiometric and amperometric operating principles
      9. 12.8 Conclusion and possible future trends
    7. Chapter 13: Printed thick-film biosensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Pharmaceutical and medical applications of thick-film biosensors
      4. 13.3 Environmental applications of screen-printed electrodes
      5. 13.4 Conclusions
      6. 13.6 Acknowledgements
    8. Chapter 14: Printed actuators
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Films as actuators
      4. 14.3 Actuation mechanisms
      5. 14.4 Piezoelectric actuators
      6. 14.5 Piezoelectric actuator fabrication
      7. 14.6 Processing–properties–microstructure interrelationship
      8. 14.7 Conclusion and future trends
    9. Chapter 15: Printed heater elements
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Materials for heater fabrication
      4. 15.3 Heater designs
      5. 15.4 Heaters for sensor and actuator applications
      6. 15.5 Conclusion
    10. Chapter 16: Screen-printing for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Fuel cells: principle, types and challenges (Hoogers, 2003; Larminie, 2000)
      4. 16.3 Electrolytes
      5. 16.4 Electrodes
      6. 16.5 Single-chamber SOFCs
      7. 16.6 Micro single-chamber SOFCs
      8. 16.7 Conclusion and trends
    11. Chapter 17: Printed varistors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 The varistor action
      4. 17.3 Composition, preparation and microstructure of ceramic ZnO-based varistors
      5. 17.4 Printing process in varistors fabrication
      6. 17.5 Multilayer varistors
      7. 17.6 Screen-printed and fired thick-film varistors
      8. 17.7 Progress in the development of ZnO-based thick-films and tape-casted varistors
      9. 17.8 Microstructural and electrical characterization of ZnO-based varistors prepared by screen printing and tape casting
      10. 17.9 Conclusion
      11. 17.10 Acknowledgements
    12. Chapter 18: Laser-printed micro- and meso-scale power generating devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Background to laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)
      4. 18.3 Laser transfer of complex rheological systems
      5. 18.4 Laser-printed micro-power sources
      6. 18.5 Laser-printed embedded micro-power sources
      7. 18.6 Challenges and opportunities
      8. 18.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 18.8 Acknowledgements
    13. Chapter 19: Printed polymer solar cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Printing and coating methods
      4. 19.3 Manufacturing methods for complete polymer solar cells
      5. 19.4 Applications and demonstrations of polymer solar cells
      6. 19.5 Conclusions and future trends
      7. 19.6 Acknowledgements
  11. Index