You are previewing Principles of Nano-Optics.
O'Reilly logo
Principles of Nano-Optics

Book Description

Nano-optics is the study of optical phenomena and techniques on the nanometer scale, that is, near or beyond the diffraction limit of light. It is an emerging field of study, motivated by the rapid advance of nanoscience and nanotechnology which require adequate tools and strategies for fabrication, manipulation and characterization at this scale. In this 2006 text the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and experimental concepts necessary to understand and work in nano-optics. With a very broad perspective, they cover optical phenomena relevant to the nanoscale across diverse areas ranging from quantum optics to biophysics, introducing and extensively describing all of the significant methods. Written for graduate students who want to enter the field, the text includes problem sets to reinforce and extend the discussion. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and course teachers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Nano-optics in a nutshell
    2. 1.2 Historical survey
    3. 1.3 Scope of the book
    4. References
  8. 2. Theoretical foundations
    1. 2.1 Macroscopic electrodynamics
    2. 2.2 Wave equations
    3. 2.3 Constitutive relations
    4. 2.4 Spectral representation of time-dependent fields
    5. 2.5 Time-harmonic fields
    6. 2.6 Complex dielectric constant
    7. 2.7 Piecewise homogeneous media
    8. 2.8 Boundary conditions
      1. 2.8.1 Fresnel reflection and transmission coefficients
    9. 2.9 Conservation of energy
    10. 2.10 Dyadic Green’s functions
      1. 2.10.1 Mathematical basis of Green’s functions
      2. 2.10.2 Derivation of the Green’s function for the electric field
      3. 2.10.3 Time-dependent Green’s functions
    11. 2.11 Evanescent fields
      1. 2.11.1 Energy transport by evanescent waves
      2. 2.11.2 Frustrated total internal reflection
    12. 2.12 Angular spectrum representation of optical fields
      1. 2.12.1 Angular spectrum representation of the dipole field
    13. Problems
    14. References
  9. 3. Propagation and focusing of optical fields
    1. 3.1 Field propagators
    2. 3.2 Paraxial approximation of optical fields
      1. 3.2.1 Gaussian laser beams
      2. 3.2.2 Higher-order laser modes
      3. 3.2.3 Longitudinal fields in the focal region
    3. 3.3 Polarized electric and polarized magnetic fields
    4. 3.4 Far-fields in the angular spectrum representation
    5. 3.5 Focusing of fields
    6. 3.6 Focal fields
    7. 3.7 Focusing of higher-order laser modes
    8. 3.8 Limit of weak focusing
    9. 3.9 Focusing near planar interfaces
    10. 3.10 Reflected image of a strongly focused spot
    11. Problems
    12. References
  10. 4. Spatial resolution and position accuracy
    1. 4.1 The point-spread function
    2. 4.2 The resolution limit(s)
      1. 4.2.1 Increasing resolution through selective excitation
      2. 4.2.2 Axial resolution
      3. 4.2.3 Resolution enhancement through saturation
    3. 4.3 Principles of confocal microscopy
    4. 4.4 Axial resolution in multiphoton microscopy
    5. 4.5 Position accuracy
      1. 4.5.1 Theoretical background
      2. 4.5.2 Estimating the uncertainties of fit parameters
    6. 4.6 Principles of near-field optical microscopy
      1. 4.6.1 Information transfer from near-field to far-field
    7. Problems
    8. References
  11. 5. Nanoscale optical microscopy
    1. 5.1 Far-field illumination and detection
      1. 5.1.1 Confocal microscopy
    2. 5.2 Near-field illumination and far-field detection
      1. 5.2.1 Aperture scanning near-field optical microscopy
      2. 5.2.2 Field-enhanced scanning near-field optical microscopy
    3. 5.3 Far-field illumination and near-field detection
      1. 5.3.1 Scanning tunneling optical microscopy
      2. 5.3.2 Collection mode near-field optical microscopy
    4. 5.4 Near-field illumination and near-field detection
    5. 5.5 Other configurations: energy-transfer microscopy
    6. 5.6 Conclusion
    7. Problems
    8. References
  12. 6. Near-field optical probes
    1. 6.1 Dielectric probes
      1. 6.1.1 Tapered optical fibers
      2. 6.1.2 Tetrahedral tips
    2. 6.2 Light propagation in a conical dielectric probe
    3. 6.3 Aperture probes
      1. 6.3.1 Power transmission through aperture probes
      2. 6.3.2 Field distribution near small apertures
      3. 6.3.3 Near-field distribution of aperture probes
      4. 6.3.4 Enhancement of transmission and directionality
    4. 6.4 Fabrication of aperture probes
      1. 6.4.1 Aperture formation by focused ion beam milling
      2. 6.4.2 Electrochemical opening and closing of apertures
      3. 6.4.3 Aperture punching
      4. 6.4.4 Microfabricated probes
    5. 6.5 Optical antennas: tips, scatterers, and bowties
      1. 6.5.1 Solid metal tips
      2. 6.5.2 Particle-plasmon probes
      3. 6.5.3 Bowtie antenna probes
    6. 6.6 Conclusion
    7. Problems
    8. References
  13. 7. Probe–sample distance control
    1. 7.1 Shear-force methods
      1. 7.1.1 Optical fibers as resonating beams
      2. 7.1.2 Tuning-fork sensors
      3. 7.1.3 The effective harmonic oscillator model
      4. 7.1.4 Response time
      5. 7.1.5 Equivalent electric circuit
    2. 7.2 Normal force methods
      1. 7.2.1 Tuning fork in tapping mode
      2. 7.2.2 Bent fiber probes
    3. 7.3 Topographic artifacts
      1. 7.3.1 Phenomenological theory of artifacts
      2. 7.3.2 Example of near-field artifacts
      3. 7.3.3 Discussion
    4. Problems
    5. References
  14. 8. Light emission and optical interactions in nanoscale environments
    1. 8.1 The multipole expansion
    2. 8.2 The classical particle–field Hamiltonian
      1. 8.2.1 Multipole expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian
    3. 8.3 The radiating electric dipole
      1. 8.3.1 Electric dipole fields in a homogeneous space
      2. 8.3.2 Dipole radiation
      3. 8.3.3 Rate of energy dissipation in inhomogeneous environments
      4. 8.3.4 Radiation reaction
    4. 8.4 Spontaneous decay
      1. 8.4.1 QED of spontaneous decay
      2. 8.4.2 Spontaneous decay and Green’s dyadics
      3. 8.4.3 Local density of states
    5. 8.5 Classical lifetimes and decay rates
      1. 8.5.1 Homogeneous environment
      2. 8.5.2 Inhomogeneous environment
      3. 8.5.3 Frequency shifts
      4. 8.5.4 Quantum yield
    6. 8.6 Dipole–dipole interactions and energy transfer
      1. 8.6.1 Multipole expansion of the Coulombic interaction
      2. 8.6.2 Energy transfer between two particles
    7. 8.7 Delocalized excitations (strong coupling)
      1. 8.7.1 Entanglement
    8. Problems
    9. References
  15. 9. Quantum emitters
    1. 9.1 Fluorescent molecules
      1. 9.1.1 Excitation
      2. 9.1.2 Relaxation
    2. 9.2 Semiconductor quantum dots
      1. 9.2.1 Surface passivation
      2. 9.2.2 Excitation
      3. 9.2.3 Coherent control of excitons
    3. 9.3 The absorption cross-section
    4. 9.4 Single-photon emission by three-level systems
      1. 9.4.1 Steady-state analysis
      2. 9.4.2 Time-dependent analysis
    5. 9.5 Single molecules as probes for localized fields
      1. 9.5.1 Field distribution in a laser focus
      2. 9.5.2 Probing strongly localized fields
    6. 9.6 Conclusion
    7. Problems
    8. References
  16. 10. Dipole emission near planar interfaces
    1. 10.1 Allowed and forbidden light
    2. 10.2 Angular spectrum representation of the dyadic Green’s function
    3. 10.3 Decomposition of the dyadic Green’s function
    4. 10.4 Dyadic Green’s functions for the reflected and transmitted fields
    5. 10.5 Spontaneous decay rates near planar interfaces
    6. 10.6 Far-fields
    7. 10.7 Radiation patterns
    8. 10.8 Where is the radiation going?
    9. 10.9 Magnetic dipoles
    10. 10.10 Image dipole approximation
      1. 10.10.1 Vertical dipole
      2. 10.10.2 Horizontal dipole
      3. 10.10.3 Including retardation
    11. Problems
    12. References
  17. 11. Photonic crystals and resonators
    1. 11.1 Photonic crystals
      1. 11.1.1 The photonic bandgap
      2. 11.1.2 Defects in photonic crystals
    2. 11.2 Optical microcavities
    3. Problems
    4. References
  18. 12. Surface plasmons
    1. 12.1 Optical properties of noble metals
      1. 12.1.1 Drude–Sommerfeld theory
      2. 12.1.2 Interband transitions
    2. 12.2 Surface plasmon polaritons at plane interfaces
      1. 12.2.1 Properties of surface plasmon polaritons
      2. 12.2.2 Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons
      3. 12.2.3 Surface plasmon sensors
    3. 12.3 Surface plasmons in nano-optics
      1. 12.3.1 Plasmons supported by wires and particles
      2. 12.3.2 Plasmon resonances of more complex structures
      3. 12.3.3 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering
    4. 12.4 Conclusion
    5. Problems
    6. References
  19. 13. Forces in confined fields
    1. 13.1 Maxwell’s stress tensor
    2. 13.2 Radiation pressure
    3. 13.3 The dipole approximation
      1. 13.3.1 Time-averaged force
      2. 13.3.2 Monochromatic fields
      3. 13.3.3 Saturation behavior for near-resonance excitation
      4. 13.3.4 Beyond the dipole approximation
    4. 13.4 Optical tweezers
    5. 13.5 Angular momentum and torque
    6. 13.6 Forces in optical near-fields
    7. 13.7 Conclusion
    8. Problems
    9. References
  20. 14. Fluctuation-induced interactions
    1. 14.1 The fluctuation–dissipation theorem
      1. 14.1.1 The system response function
      2. 14.1.2 Johnson noise
      3. 14.1.3 Dissipation due to fluctuating external fields
      4. 14.1.4 Normal and antinormal ordering
    2. 14.2 Emission by fluctuating sources
      1. 14.2.1 Blackbody radiation
      2. 14.2.2 Coherence, spectral shifts and heat transfer
    3. 14.3 Fluctuation-induced forces
      1. 14.3.1 The Casimir–Polder potential
      2. 14.3.2 Electromagnetic friction
    4. 14.4 Conclusion
    5. Problems
    6. References
  21. 15. Theoretical methods in nano-optics
    1. 15.1 The multiple multipole method
    2. 15.2 Volume integral methods
      1. 15.2.1 The volume integral equation
      2. 15.2.2 The method of moments (MOM)
      3. 15.2.3 The coupled dipole method (CDM)
      4. 15.2.4 Equivalence of the MOM and the CDM
    3. 15.3 Effective polarizability
    4. 15.4 The total Green’s function
    5. 15.5 Conclusion and outlook
    6. Problems
    7. References
  22. Appendix A: Semianalytical derivation of the atomic polarizability
    1. A.1 Steady-state polarizability for weak excitation fields
    2. A.2 Near-resonance excitation in absence of damping
    3. A.3 Near-resonance excitation with damping
  23. Appendix B: Spontaneous emission in the weak coupling regime
    1. B.1 Weisskopf–Wigner theory
    2. B.2 Inhomogeneous environments
    3. References
  24. Appendix C: Fields of a dipole near a layered substrate
    1. C.1 Vertical electric dipole
    2. C.2 Horizontal electric dipole
    3. C.3 Definition of the coefficients Aj, Bj, and Cj
  25. Appendix D: Far-field Green’s functions
  26. Index