You are previewing Principles of Management: Text and Cases.
O'Reilly logo
Principles of Management: Text and Cases

Book Description

Principles of Management: Text and Cases introduces students to the fundamentals of management through a balanced blend of theory and practice. The opening vignettes and cases depict real-world situations and problems that managers face while highlighting the management practices of successful Indian and foreign companies. Samples of a leave policy, a strategy and action plan for human resource management, an application blank, and a code of ethics are appended to a few chapters to further illustrate the way organizations function. In addition to the concepts, the book also delves into the various academic perspectives that have evolved over time to provide the readers an integrated view of different approaches to management.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction to Management
    1. Introduction
    2. A Backdrop to Management
      1. History of Management
      2. Nature and Process of Management
      3. Dimensions of Management
    3. Functions of Management
      1. Planning
      2. Organizing
      3. Staffing
      4. Directing
      5. Control
      6. Coordination
    4. Characteristics of Management
      1. Management: Is it a Science or an Art?
      2. Management: A Profession
      3. Significance of Management
    5. Different Approaches to Management
      1. Classical School of Thought
      2. Neo-Classical School of Thought
      3. Modern Approaches
    6. Contemporary School of Management Thought
    7. Management by Objectives
    8. Managerial Roles
    9. Managerial Skills and Competencies
      1. Skills Inventories
      2. Multi-Skilling
      3. Competencies
    10. Case: National Bank's Change in Crisis Management
    11. Case: Mind your Attitude
    12. Summary
    13. Key Terms
    14. Review Questions
    15. Critical Thinking Questions
    16. References
    17. Further Reading
  8. 2. Organizational Planning
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Planning
      1. Importance of Planning
      2. Limitations of Planning
    3. Components of Planning
      1. Policy
      2. Programme
      3. Strategy
      4. Vision
      5. Mission
      6. Goals
      7. Objectives
    4. Strategic Control
      1. Establishing Strategic Control
      2. Types of Strategic Control
    5. Operational Control
      1. Functional and Grand Strategies
      2. Operational Strategy Factors
      3. Budgeting
    6. Forecasting
      1. Steps in Forecasting
      2. Types of Forecasting
    7. Qualitative Methods
      1. Delphi Technique
      2. Nominal Group Method
      3. Market Research
    8. Time-Series Analysis
      1. Moving Average Method
      2. Exponential Smoothing
      3. Tracking Signal
    9. Decision Making
      1. Decision Trees
      2. Management Information Systems and Decision Support Systems
    10. Scenario Planning
      1. Forces of Scenario Planning
      2. Steps for Scenario Planning
    11. Case: Kumar.com: Problems Suffered Due to Poor Planning
    12. Summary
    13. Key Terms
    14. Review Questions
    15. Critical Thinking Questions
    16. References
    17. Further Reading
    18. Annexure 2.1
    19. Annexure 2.2
  9. 3. Organizing
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Organization
      1. Theories of Organization
      2. Principles of Organization
      3. Human Factors Behind Organizing
      4. Important Steps in Organizing
      5. Benefits of Organizing
      6. Types of Organizations
    3. Systems View of Organizations
      1. Organizational Structure and Systems
      2. Organization Structure
      3. Types of Organization Structures
      4. Organizational Effectiveness
      5. Developing an Organization Structure or Design
    4. Dynamic Organizational Structure and Departmentation
      1. Principles of Departmentation
      2. Process of Departmentation
      3. Patterns Used in Departmentation
    5. Organization Structure in a Globalized World
    6. Virtual or Networked Organizations
    7. Organizing as Part of the Total Management Task
      1. Delegation of Authority
      2. Decentralization
    8. Line and Staff Relations
    9. Span of Management
      1. Wide Versus Narrow Spans
      2. Factors Determining Spans
    10. Open Systems Approach in Organizations
    11. Case: CEOs Can Work as a Team: Lessons from Wipro
    12. Summary
    13. Key Terms
    14. Review Questions
    15. Critical Thinking Questions
    16. References
    17. Further Reading
  10. 4. Staffing in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Recruitment
      1. Functions of Recruitment
      2. Internal Recruitment
      3. Recruitment Policy
    3. Recruitment Process
      1. Preliminary Screening of Applicants
      2. Review of Application Blanks
      3. Reference Checking
      4. Psychological Testing
    4. Attitude Measurement
      1. Techniques of Attitude Measurement
      2. Levels of Attitude Measurement
    5. Other Measures of Attitudes
      1. Physiological Measures
      2. Attitude Surveys
    6. Human Resource Management and Attitudinal Change
    7. Interview
    8. Induction and Placement
      1. Induction
      2. Placement
      3. Importance of Induction and Placement
    9. Staffing Costs
      1. Areas of Staffing Costs
      2. Recruitment Ratios
    10. Case: Staffing Solutions of Knowledge Hub: Lessons from the KPO Industry
    11. Summary
    12. Key Terms
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. References
    16. Further Reading
    17. Annexure 4.1
  11. 5. Directing Through Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. Motivation in Organizations
      1. Process of Motivation
      2. Objectives of Motivation
      3. Mechanism of Motivation
      4. Significance of Motivation in Organizations
    3. Theories of Motivation
      1. Content Theories
      2. Cognitive or Process Theories of Motivation
      3. Miscellaneous Theories on Motivation
      4. Indian Studies on Motivation
    4. Motivation and Morale
    5. Case: Human Resource Development is not Enough: The Case of New Life
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. References
    11. Further Reading
  12. 6. Directing Through Leadership
    1. Introduction
    2. Leadership
      1. Functions of Leadership
    3. Leadership and Management
      1. Formal and Informal Leadership
      2. Significance of Leadership
      3. Principles of Leadership
      4. Factors of Leadership
    4. Leadership and Environment
    5. Leadership and Power
      1. Leadership Styles
      2. Leadership Attitudes
      3. Leadership Skill
    6. Leadership Theories and Studies
      1. Iowa Leadership Studies
      2. Ohio State Leadership Studies
      3. Michigan Studies on Leadership Styles
      4. Managerial Grid
      5. Continuum of Leadership Behaviour
      6. Four-Framework Model of Leadership
      7. Trait Theory of Leadership
      8. Behavioural Theory of Leadership
      9. Situational Theory of Leadership
      10. Great Man Theory of Leadership
    7. Case: Life Savers: The Saga of a Benevolent Employer
    8. Case: GE and Jack Welch's Style of Leadership
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  13. 7. Introduction to Control
    1. Introduction
    2. Control
      1. Characteristics of Control
      2. Prerequisites of a Good Control System
      3. Essential Features of a Good Control System
      4. Types of Control
    3. Simons' Levers of Control
    4. Process of Control
      1. Methods of Control
      2. Usage of Control
      3. Importance of Control
      4. Shortcomings of Control
    5. Tools of Control
      1. Control Limits
      2. Control Charts
      3. Gantt or Bar Charts
      4. Precedence Diagrams
      5. Pert
      6. Control Ratios
    6. Control Techniques
      1. Functional Task Analysis
      2. Budgetary Control
      3. Manufacturing Control Systems
    7. Case: Ciziko: Testing Time for Market Intelligence Control
    8. Case: Managing Without Control
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  14. 8. Coordination in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Coordination
      1. Characteristics of Coordination
      2. Importance of Coordination
      3. Principles of Coordination
      4. Objectives and Purposes of Coordination
      5. Types of Coordination
    3. Case: Coordination: An Integral Part of Management
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. Review Questions
    7. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. References
    9. Further Reading
  15. 9. Organizational Forms
    1. Introduction
    2. Sole Proprietorships
    3. Partnerships
    4. Joint Stock Companies
    5. Cooperative Organizations
    6. Multinational Organizations
    7. Micro-Multinationals
    8. Globally Integrated Enterprises
    9. Transnational Organizations
    10. Features of International Organizations
      1. Advantages of MNCs
      2. Disadvantages of MNCs
    11. Case: The Complex Organizational Web of Cisco
    12. Summary
    13. Key Terms
    14. Review Questions
    15. Critical Thinking Questions
    16. Further Reading
  16. 10. Business Environment and Social Responsibility
    1. Introduction
    2. Social Responsibility of Business
      1. Reasons for Social Responsibility
      2. Advantages for Socially Responsible Organizations
      3. Disadvantages for Socially Responsible Organizations
    3. The Business Environment
      1. Analysis of the Business Environment
      2. Scenario Planning for Environment Analysis
    4. Case: Impact of CSR: Grasim (A Flagship Company of Aditya Birla Group)
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. Review Questions
    8. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. References
    10. Further Reading
  17. 11. Ethics and Values in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Concepts of Ethics and Values
      1. Code of Ethics
      2. Training in Ethics
    3. Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations
      1. Different Views on Managerial Ethics
      2. Factors Affecting Managerial Ethics
    4. Ethical Decision Making
      1. Ways to Test Ethical Decisions
      2. Steps in Ethical Decision Making
    5. Case: Market Penetration and the Question of Business Ethics
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. References
    11. Further Reading
    12. Annexure 11.1
  18. 12. Communication and Negotiation in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Communication
      1. Elements of Communication
      2. Nature of Communication
    3. Organizational Communication
      1. Types of Organizational Communication
      2. Effective Communication
      3. Psychological and Behavioural Influence on Communication
      4. Group Communication
    4. Communication Barriers
      1. External Barriers
      2. Organizational Barriers
      3. Personal Barriers
      4. Methods of Overcoming Communication Barriers
    5. Transactional Analysis
    6. Negotiation
    7. Case: Negotiating for Success: The Experience of a Walmart Vendor
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. References
    13. Further Reading
  19. 13. Organizational Systems, Structure, and Design
    1. Introduction
    2. Systems Theory, Systems Analysis, and Systems Thinking
      1. Principles of Systems Theory
      2. Viable System Model, Organizational Cybernetics, and Organizational Systems
      3. Chaos Theory
      4. Socio-Technical Systems Thinking
      5. System Dynamics
      6. Business Process Approach to Organization
      7. Organizational Systems and Human Resource Management
    3. Evolution of the Business Process Model of Organization
      1. Description of Business Process Models
      2. Types of Business Process Models
      3. Role of Critical Success Factors in Organizational Design
      4. Business Process Re-Engineering
    4. Human Resource Information Systems and Its Usage in Organizational Design
    5. Organizational Culture
    6. Organizational Design
      1. Bureaucratic Model
      2. Behavioural Model
      3. Situational Aspects of Organizational Design
    7. Case: New Organization Structure in Times of Need: The Experience of Bajaj Electricals
    8. Case: Impact of Change in Organizational Culture
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  20. 14. Technology Management in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Technology Management
      1. Issues in Technology Management
      2. Strategic Technology Management
      3. Human Resource Management and Technology Management
      4. Technology and Organizational Operations
    3. Technology Planning
    4. Technology Innovation
    5. Technology Transfer
    6. Technology and Organizational Design
      1. Thompson's Model
      2. Woodward's Technologies
    7. Case: Innovation in Customer Services of Ford Motors
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. References
    13. Further Reading
  21. 15. Globalization and Business Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Globalization
      1. Debate on Globalization
      2. Benefits of Globalization
      3. Factors Promoting Globalization
      4. Process of Development of Globalization
    3. Important Players in Globalization
      1. World Trade Organization (WTO)
      2. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
      3. World Bank
      4. United Nations (UN)
      5. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
      6. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
    4. Globalization and Its Influence on Business and Managerial Practices
    5. Globalization and International Marketing
      1. Scope of International Marketing
      2. Driving Forces of International Business
      3. Interrelations Between Globalization and Culture
    6. Globalization and Talent Management
    7. Case: Cross-cultural Teamwork Through Lateral Hierarchy: The Experience of DEC
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. References
    13. Further Reading
  22. 16. Organizational Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Organizational Culture
      1. Organizational Culture and Globalization
      2. Mergers and Their Impact on Corporate Cultures
      3. Hofstede's Cultural Orientation Model
      4. Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate
      5. Organizational Culture and Organizational Structure
    3. Cultural Issues Across Nations
    4. Management of Corporate Culture Change
    5. Organizational Diagnostics
      1. Attitudes Towards Work
      2. Organizational Commitment
      3. Organizational Climate
    6. Organizational Development
      1. Characteristics of Organizational Development
      2. Goals of Organizational Development
      3. Steps in Organizational Development
      4. Different Stages of Organizational Development
    7. Organizational Change
      1. Need for Organizational Change
      2. Philosophy of Organizational Change
      3. Steps to Successful Organizational Change
      4. Organizational Transition
      5. Differences Between Organizational Change and Transformation
      6. Triggers of Change
    8. Case: Strategic Globalization of Business: The Lessons of Barclays
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  23. 17. Managing Conflict and Stress in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Conflict
      1. Types of Conflict
      2. Causes of Conflict
      3. Conflict Management
      4. Conflict Models and Strategies
    3. Stress in Organizations
      1. Nature of Stress
      2. Stress and the Individual
      3. Causes of Stress in Organizations
      4. Approaches to Managing Stress
    4. Process of Conflict Management
      1. Employee Discipline and Grievance Handling as a Workplace Conflict-Resolution Strategy
      2. Collective Bargaining as a Conflict-Resolution Strategy
    5. Case: Resolve Conflict Through Discussions: The Case of Robin and His People
    6. Case: Managing Stress in Organizations: The Case of an Industrial Chemical Company
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. References
    12. Further Reading
  24. 18. Individual Behaviour and Its Characteristics
    1. Introduction
    2. Concept of Perception
      1. Perception as a Process
      2. Theories of Perception
      3. Types of Perception
      4. Principles of Perception
    3. Perception and Individual Decision Making
      1. Rational Decision Making by Individuals
      2. Non-Rational Models of Individual Decision Making
    4. Personality and Individual Behaviour
      1. Different Perspectives of Personality
      2. Characteristics of Personality
      3. Determinants of Personality
      4. Personality and Individual Differences
      5. Personality Types
      6. Personality Opposites
    5. Attitude and Individual Behaviour
    6. Emotional Intelligence
      1. Aspects of Emotional Intelligence
      2. Domains of Emotional Intelligence
      3. Using Emotional Intelligence at the Workplace
      4. Nature of Emotional Intelligence
    7. Emotional Intelligence, Individual Behaviour, and Performance
    8. Case: Surviving Competition Through Attitudinal Change
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  25. 19. Managing People in Groups
    1. Introduction
    2. Group Dynamics
      1. Importance of Studying Groups
      2. Important Characteristics of a Group
      3. Types of Groups
    3. Group Formation
      1. Stages of Group Development
      2. Models of Group Development
    4. Group Effectiveness
    5. Decision Making in Groups
    6. Case: Infosys: A Culture that Promotes Achieving Excellence Through Group Efforts
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. References
    12. Further Reading
  26. 20. Capability Development, Innovation, and Creativity
    1. Introduction
    2. People Capability Maturity Model
      1. Levels of P-CMM
      2. Objectives of P-CMM
      3. Significance of P-CMM
    3. Organizational Life Cycle
      1. Infant Stage
      2. Growing Stage
      3. Prime Stage
      4. Ageing Stage
      5. Dying Stage
    4. Capability Development
      1. Benefits of Capability Development Models
      2. Key Areas of Capability Development
      3. Talent Management for Capability Development
    5. Innovation and Creativity
      1. Aligning Innovation to Competitive Strengths and Organizational Capability Development
      2. Aligning Innovation and Creativity to Organizational Practices
    6. Critical Success Factors
    7. Blockbusting and Product Improvement
    8. Case: Lessons from Mitsubishi Chemicals
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. References
    14. Further Reading
  27. 21. Quality Management Practices in Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. Quality in Organizations
      1. Cost of Quality
      2. Quality Management
      3. Standards
      4. ISO 9001:2000 Family of Standards
    3. Quality Gurus and Their Contribution to TQM Practices
    4. Modes of TQM
      1. Teams and Teamwork
      2. Employee Empowerment
      3. Quality of Work Life (QWL)
    5. Six Sigma Practices
    6. Malcolm Baldrige Model
    7. Quality Circles and Total Employee Involvement
    8. People and Organizational Competencies
    9. Lean Management
    10. Toyota Production System
    11. Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM)
    12. Case: Quality Measurement: The Experience of Zed Plus
    13. Summary
    14. Key Terms
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. References
    18. Further Reading
  28. Acknowledgements
  29. Copyright