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Principles of LED Light Communications

Book Description

Balancing theoretical analysis and practical advice, this book describes all the underlying principles required to build high performance indoor optical wireless communication (OWC) systems based on visible and infrared light, alongside essential techniques for optimising systems by maximising throughput, reducing hardware complexity and measuring performance effectively. It provides a comprehensive analysis of information rate-, spectral- and power-efficiencies for single and multi-carrier transmission schemes, and a novel analysis of non-linear signal distortion, enabling the use of off-the-shelf LED technology. Other topics covered include cellular network throughput and coverage, static resource partitioning via dynamic interference-aware scheduling, realistic light propagation modelling, OFDM, optical MIMO transmission and nonlinearity modelling. Covering practical techniques for building indoor optical wireless cellular networks supporting multiple users and guidelines for 5G cellular system studies, in addition to physical layer issues, this is an indispensable resource for academic researchers, professional engineers and graduate students working in optical communications.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Halftitle page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Acronyms
  7. Notation
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 History of OWC
    2. 1.2 Advantages of OWC
    3. 1.3 Application areas
    4. 1.4 Li-Fi
      1. 1.4.1 Modulation
      2. 1.4.2 Multiple access
      3. 1.4.3 Uplink
      4. 1.4.4 The attocell
      5. 1.4.5 Cellular network
    5. 1.5 Challenges for OWC
    6. 1.6 Summary
  9. 2 Optical wireless communication
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 System setup
    3. 2.3 Communication scenarios
      1. 2.3.1 Line-of-sight communication
      2. 2.3.2 Non-line-of-sight communication
    4. 2.4 Optical front-ends
      1. 2.4.1 Transmitter
      2. 2.4.2 Receiver
    5. 2.5 Optical wireless channel
      1. 2.5.1 Channel model
      2. 2.5.2 Path loss
      3. 2.5.3 Delay spread and coherence bandwidth
      4. 2.5.4 Channel equalization
    6. 2.6 Cellular network: a case study in an aircraft cabin
      1. 2.6.1 Ray-tracing for signal and interference modeling
      2. 2.6.2 Cabin setup: propagation paths, cellular configuration, and wavelength reuse
      3. 2.6.3 Cabin geometry and materials
      4. 2.6.4 Access points
      5. 2.6.5 Photobiological safety
      6. 2.6.6 Estimation of line-of-sight path loss and shadowing
      7. 2.6.7 Estimation of non-line-of-sight path loss and shadowing
      8. 2.6.8 Signal-to-interference ratio maps
    7. 2.7 Summary
  10. 3 Front-end non-linearity
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Generalized non-linear transfer function
    3. 3.3 Pre-distortion
    4. 3.4 Non-linear distortion of Gaussian signals
      1. 3.4.1 Analysis of generalized non-linear distortion
      2. 3.4.2 Analysis of double-sided signal clipping distortion
    5. 3.5 Summary
  11. 4 Digital modulation schemes
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Optical signals
    3. 4.3 Single-carrier modulation
      1. 4.3.1 Pulse position modulation: M-PPM
      2. 4.3.2 Pulse amplitude modulation: M-PAM
      3. 4.3.3 BER performance with pre-distortion in AWGN
    4. 4.4 Multi-carrier modulation
      1. 4.4.1 Optical OFDM with M-QAM: DCO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM
      2. 4.4.2 BER performance with generalized non-linear distortion in AWGN
      3. 4.4.3 BER performance with pre-distortion in AWGN
    5. 4.5 Summary
  12. 5 Spectral efficiency and information rate
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Constraints on the information rate in OWC
      1. 5.2.1 Link impairments
      2. 5.2.2 On the maximization of information rate
    3. 5.3 Modulation schemes in the flat fading channel with AWGN
      1. 5.3.1 Biasing optimization of Gaussian signals
      2. 5.3.2 Maximum spectral efficiency without an average optical power constraint
      3. 5.3.3 Spectral efficiency with an average optical power constraint
    4. 5.4 Information rate of OFDM-based modulation with non-linear distortion
      1. 5.4.1 Biasing optimization of Gaussian signals
      2. 5.4.2 Maximum information rate without an average optical power constraint
      3. 5.4.3 Information rate with an average optical power constraint
    5. 5.5 Modulation schemes in the dispersive channel with AWGN
      1. 5.5.1 Biasing optimization of Gaussian signals
      2. 5.5.2 DC-bias penalty
      3. 5.5.3 Equalizer penalty
      4. 5.5.4 Maximum spectral efficiency without an average optical power constraint
    6. 5.6 Summary
  13. 6 MIMO transmission
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 System model
    3. 6.3 MIMO techniques
      1. 6.3.1 Repetition coding
      2. 6.3.2 Spatial multiplexing
      3. 6.3.3 Spatial modulation
      4. 6.3.4 Computational complexity
    4. 6.4 BER performance
      1. 6.4.1 Varying the separation of transmitters
      2. 6.4.2 Varying the position of receivers
      3. 6.4.3 Power imbalance between transmitters
      4. 6.4.4 Link blockage
    5. 6.5 Summary
  14. 7 Throughput of cellular OWC networks
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 System throughput using static resource partitioning
      1. 7.2.1 Signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio modeling
      2. 7.2.2 Adaptive modulation and coding
      3. 7.2.3 System throughput of optical OFDM in an aircraft cabin
    3. 7.3 Interference coordination in optical cells using busy burst signaling
      1. 7.3.1 System model
      2. 7.3.2 Interference coordination in optical cells
      3. 7.3.3 Busy burst principle
      4. 7.3.4 Contention avoidance among neighboring cells
      5. 7.3.5 User scheduling and fair reservation mechanism
      6. 7.3.6 Link adaptation
      7. 7.3.7 System throughput with busy burst signaling
      8. 7.3.8 System throughput with busy burst signaling and fair reservation mechanism
    4. 7.4 Summary
  15. References
  16. Index