First, let's take a look at the most basic symbols that are used in the mathematical process as well as some more subtle notations used by data scientists.

A **vector** is defined as an object with both magnitude and direction. This definition, however, is a bit complicated for our use. For our purpose, a vector is simply a 1-dimensional array representing a series of numbers. Put in another way, a vector is a list of numbers.

It is generally represented using an arrow or bold font, as shown:

Vectors are broken into components, which are individual members of the vector. We use index notations to denote ...

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