Chapter 6 explained in some detail how to use JRuby to get access to Java resources, and Chapter 7 described the implementation of most of the administrative user interface for the CoMpoSe application. This chapter is split in two parts. First of all, we're going to take a thorough look at different ways of doing content rendering. The examples here will be small standalone programs that can be executed outside Rails. In this way we can see many different ways of handling XML content, and also some other interesting approaches.