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Practical Image and Video Processing Using MATLAB® by Oge Marques

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Chapter 2

Image Processing Basics

What Will We Learn?

  • How is a digital image represented and stored in memory?
  • What are the main types of digital image representation?
  • What are the most popular image file formats?
  • What are the most common types of image processing operations and how do they affect pixel values?

2.1 Digital Image Representation

A digital image—whether it was obtained as a result of sampling and quantization of an analog image or created already in digital form—can be represented as a two-dimensional (2D) matrix of real numbers. In this book, we adopt the convention f(x, y) to refer to monochrome images of size M×N, where x denotes the row number (from 0 to img) and y represents the column number (between 0 and img) (Figure 2.1):

(2.1) equation

Figure 2.1 A monochrome image and the convention used to represent rows (x) and columns (y) adopted in this book.

img

The value of the two-dimensional function img at any given pixel of coordinates , denoted by , is called the intensity or gray level ...

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