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Practical Foundations for Programming Languages by Robert Harper

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30 Constructive Logic

Constructive logic codifies the principles of mathematical reasoning as they are actually practiced. In mathematics a proposition may be judged to be true exactly when it has a proof and may be judged to be false exactly when it has a refutation. Because there are, and always will be, unsolved problems, we cannot expect in general that a proposition is either true or false, for in most cases we have neither a proof nor a refutation of it. Constructive logic may be described as logic as if people matter, as distinct from classical logic, which may be described as the logic of the mind of god. From a constructive viewpoint the judgment “ϕ true” means that “there is a proof of ϕ.”

What constitutes a proof is a social construct, ...

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