30 | Constructive Logic |

Constructive logic codifies the principles of mathematical reasoning as they are actually practiced. In mathematics a proposition may be judged to be true exactly when it has a proof and may be judged to be false exactly when it has a refutation. Because there are, and always will be, unsolved problems, we cannot expect in general that a proposition is either true or false, for in most cases we have neither a proof nor a refutation of it. Constructive logic may be described as *logic as if people matter*, as distinct from classical logic, which may be described as *the logic of the mind of god*. From a constructive viewpoint the judgment “*ϕ* true” means that “there is a proof of *ϕ*.”

What constitutes a proof is a social construct, ...

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