You are previewing Practical Electronics for Inventors, 4th Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Practical Electronics for Inventors, 4th Edition

Book Description

A Fully-Updated, No-Nonsense Guide to Electronics

Advance your electronics knowledge and gain the skills necessary to develop and construct your own functioning gadgets. Written by a pair of experienced engineers and dedicated hobbyists, Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, lays out the essentials and provides step-by-step instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Discover how to select the right components, design and build circuits, use microcontrollers and ICs, work with the latest software tools, and test and tweak your creations. This easy-to-follow book features new instruction on programmable logic, semiconductors, operational amplifiers, voltage regulators, power supplies, digital electronics, and more.
 
Practical Electronics for Inventors, Fourth Edition, covers:

  • Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers
  • Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits
  • Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors
  • Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens
  • Op amps, regulators, and power supplies
  • Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates
  • Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms
  • Combinational and sequential programmable logic
  • DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors
  • Microphones, audio amps, and speakers
  • Modular electronics and prototypes

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Halftitle Page
  3. About the Authors
  4. About the Technical Editors
  5. Title Page
  6. Copyright Page
  7. Contents
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 1</span> Introduction to Electronics Introduction to Electronics
  11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 2</span> Theory Theory
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.1</span> Theory of Electronics Theory of Electronics
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.2</span> Electric Current Electric Current
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.2.1</span> Currents in Perspective Currents in Perspective
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.3</span> Voltage Voltage
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.3.1</span> The Mechanisms of Voltage The Mechanisms of Voltage
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.3.2</span> Definition of Volt and Generalized Power Law Definition of Volt and Generalized Power Law
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.3.3</span> Combining Batteries Combining Batteries
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.3.4</span> Other Voltage Sources Other Voltage Sources
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.3.5</span> Water Analogies Water Analogies
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.4</span> A Microscopic View of Conduction (for Those Who Are Interested) A Microscopic View of Conduction (for Those Who Are Interested)
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.4.1</span> Applying a Voltage Applying a Voltage
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.5</span> Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.5.1</span> How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.5.2</span> Resistivity and Conductivity Resistivity and Conductivity
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.6</span> Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.7</span> Heat and Power Heat and Power
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.8</span> Thermal Heat Conduction and Thermal Resistance Thermal Heat Conduction and Thermal Resistance
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.8.1</span> Importance of Heat Production Importance of Heat Production
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.9</span> Wire Gauges Wire Gauges
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.10</span> Grounds Grounds
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.10.1</span> Earth Ground Earth Ground
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.10.2</span> Different Types of Ground Symbols Different Types of Ground Symbols
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.10.3</span> Loose Ends on Grounding Loose Ends on Grounding
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.11</span> Electric Circuits Electric Circuits
    12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.12</span> Ohm&#8217;s Law and Resistors Ohm’s Law and Resistors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.12.1</span> Resistor Power Ratings Resistor Power Ratings
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.12.2</span> Resistors in Parallel Resistors in Parallel
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.12.3</span> Resistors in Series Resistors in Series
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.12.4</span> Reducing a Complex Resistor Network Reducing a Complex Resistor Network
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.12.5</span> Multiple Voltage Dividers Multiple Voltage Dividers
    13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.13</span> Voltage and Current Sources Voltage and Current Sources
    14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.14</span> Measuring Voltage, Current, and Resistance Measuring Voltage, Current, and Resistance
    15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.15</span> Combining Batteries Combining Batteries
    16. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.16</span> Open and Short Circuits Open and Short Circuits
    17. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.17</span> Kirchhoff&#8217;s Laws Kirchhoff’s Laws
    18. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.18</span> Superposition Theorem Superposition Theorem
    19. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.19</span> Thevenin&#8217;s and Norton&#8217;s Theorems Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.19.1</span> Thevenin&#8217;s Theorem Thevenin’s Theorem
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.19.2</span> Norton&#8217;s Theorem Norton’s Theorem
    20. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.20</span> AC Circuits AC Circuits
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.1</span> Generating AC Generating AC
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.2</span> Water Analogy of AC Water Analogy of AC
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.3</span> Pulsating DC Pulsating DC
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.4</span> Combining Sinusoidal Sources Combining Sinusoidal Sources
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.5</span> AC Waveforms AC Waveforms
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.6</span> Describing an AC Waveform Describing an AC Waveform
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.7</span> Frequency and Period Frequency and Period
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.20.8</span> Phase Phase
    21. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.21</span> AC and Resistors, RMS Voltage, and Current AC and Resistors, RMS Voltage, and Current
    22. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.22</span> Mains Power Mains Power
    23. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.23</span> Capacitors Capacitors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.1</span> Determining Capacitance Determining Capacitance
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.2</span> Commercial Capacitors Commercial Capacitors
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.3</span> Voltage Rating and Dielectric Breakdown Voltage Rating and Dielectric Breakdown
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.4</span> Maxwell&#8217;s Displacement Current Maxwell’s Displacement Current
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.5</span> Charge-Based Model of Current Through a Capacitor Charge-Based Model of Current Through a Capacitor
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.6</span> Capacitor Water Analogy Capacitor Water Analogy
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.7</span> Energy in a Capacitor Energy in a Capacitor
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.8</span> RC Time Constant RC Time Constant
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.9</span> Stray Capacitance Stray Capacitance
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.10</span> Capacitors in Parallel Capacitors in Parallel
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.11</span> Capacitors in Series Capacitors in Series
      12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.12</span> Alternating Current in a Capacitor Alternating Current in a Capacitor
      13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.13</span> Capacitive Reactance Capacitive Reactance
      14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.14</span> Capacitive Divider Capacitive Divider
      15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.23.15</span> Quality Factor Quality Factor
    24. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.24</span> Inductors Inductors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.1</span> Electromagnetism Electromagnetism
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.2</span> Magnetic Fields and Their Influence Magnetic Fields and Their Influence
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.3</span> Self-Inductance Self-Inductance
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.4</span> Inductors Inductors
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.5</span> Inductor Water Analogy Inductor Water Analogy
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.6</span> Inductor Equations Inductor Equations
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.7</span> Energy Within an Inductor Energy Within an Inductor
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.8</span> Inductor Cores Inductor Cores
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.9</span> Understanding the Inductor Equations Understanding the Inductor Equations
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.10</span> Energizing RL Circuit Energizing RL Circuit
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.11</span> Deenergizing RL Circuit Deenergizing RL Circuit
      12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.12</span> Voltage Spikes Due to Switching Voltage Spikes Due to Switching
      13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.13</span> Straight-Wire Inductance Straight-Wire Inductance
      14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.14</span> Mutual Inductance and Magnetic Coupling Mutual Inductance and Magnetic Coupling
      15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.15</span> Unwanted Coupling: Spikes, Lightning, and Other Pulses Unwanted Coupling: Spikes, Lightning, and Other Pulses
      16. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.16</span> Inductors in Series and Parallel Inductors in Series and Parallel
      17. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.17</span> Alternating Current and Inductors Alternating Current and Inductors
      18. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.18</span> Inductive Reactance Inductive Reactance
      19. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.19</span> Nonideal Inductor Model Nonideal Inductor Model
      20. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.20</span> Quality Factor Quality Factor
      21. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.24.21</span> Inductor Applications Inductor Applications
    25. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.25</span> Modeling Complex Circuits Modeling Complex Circuits
    26. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.26</span> Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
    27. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.27</span> Circuit with Sinusoidal Sources Circuit with Sinusoidal Sources
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.27.1</span> Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.27.2</span> Sinusoidal Voltage Source in Complex Notation Sinusoidal Voltage Source in Complex Notation
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.27.3</span> Odd Phenomena in Reactive Circuits Odd Phenomena in Reactive Circuits
    28. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.28</span> Power in AC Circuits (Apparent Power, Real Power, Reactive Power) Power in AC Circuits (Apparent Power, Real Power, Reactive Power)
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.28.1</span> Power Factor Power Factor
    29. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.29</span> Thevenin&#8217;s Theorem in AC Form Thevenin’s Theorem in AC Form
    30. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.30</span> Resonant Circuits Resonant Circuits
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.1</span> Resonance in RLC Circuits Resonance in RLC Circuits
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.2</span> <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">Q</i> (Quality Factor) and Bandwidth (Quality Factor) and Bandwidth
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.3</span> Bandwidth Bandwidth
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.4</span> Voltage Drop Across Components in RLC Resonant Circuit Voltage Drop Across Components in RLC Resonant Circuit
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.5</span> Capacitor Losses Capacitor Losses
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.6</span> Parallel-Resonant Circuits Parallel-Resonant Circuits
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.30.7</span> The The <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">Q</i> of Loaded Circuits of Loaded Circuits
    31. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.31</span> Lecture on Decibels Lecture on Decibels
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.31.1</span> Alternative Decibel Representations Alternative Decibel Representations
    32. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.32</span> Input and Output Impedance Input and Output Impedance
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.32.1</span> Input Impedance Input Impedance
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.32.2</span> Output Impedance Output Impedance
    33. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.33</span> Two-Port Networks and Filters Two-Port Networks and Filters
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.33.1</span> Filters Filters
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.33.2</span> Attenuators Attenuators
    34. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.34</span> Transient Circuits Transient Circuits
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.34.1</span> Series RLC Circuit Series RLC Circuit
    35. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.35</span> Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.35.1</span> Fourier Series Fourier Series
    36. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.36</span> Nonperiodic Sources Nonperiodic Sources
    37. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">2.37</span> SPICE SPICE
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.37.1</span> How SPICE Works How SPICE Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.37.2</span> Limitations of SPICE and Other Simulators Limitations of SPICE and Other Simulators
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">2.37.3</span> A Simple Simulation Example A Simple Simulation Example
  12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 3</span> Basic Electronic Circuit Components Basic Electronic Circuit Components
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.1</span> Wires, Cables, and Connectors Wires, Cables, and Connectors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.1.1</span> Wires Wires
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.1.2</span> Cables Cables
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.1.3</span> Connectors Connectors
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.1.4</span> Wiring and Connector Symbols Wiring and Connector Symbols
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.1.5</span> High-Frequency Effects Within Wires and Cables High-Frequency Effects Within Wires and Cables
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.2</span> Batteries Batteries
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.1</span> How a Cell Works How a Cell Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.2</span> Primary Batteries Primary Batteries
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.3</span> Comparing Primary Batteries Comparing Primary Batteries
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.4</span> Secondary Batteries Secondary Batteries
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.5</span> Battery Capacity Battery Capacity
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.2.6</span> Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.3</span> Switches Switches
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.3.1</span> How a Switch Works How a Switch Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.3.2</span> Describing a Switch Describing a Switch
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.3.3</span> Kinds of Switches Kinds of Switches
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.3.4</span> Simple Switch Applications Simple Switch Applications
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.4</span> Relays Relays
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.4.1</span> Specific Kinds of Relays Specific Kinds of Relays
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.4.2</span> A Few Notes about Relays A Few Notes about Relays
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.4.3</span> Some Simple Relay Circuits Some Simple Relay Circuits
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.5</span> Resistors Resistors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.1</span> Resistance and Ohm&#8217;s Law Resistance and Ohm’s Law
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.2</span> Resistors in Series and Parallel Resistors in Series and Parallel
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.3</span> Reading Resistor Labels Reading Resistor Labels
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.4</span> Real Resistor Characteristics Real Resistor Characteristics
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.5</span> Types of Resistors Types of Resistors
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.6</span> Variable Resistors (Rheostats, Potentiometers, Trimmers) Variable Resistors (Rheostats, Potentiometers, Trimmers)
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.5.7</span> Potentiometer Characteristics Potentiometer Characteristics
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.6</span> Capacitors Capacitors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.1</span> Capacitance Capacitance
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.2</span> Capacitors in Parallel Capacitors in Parallel
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.3</span> Capacitors in Series Capacitors in Series
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.4</span> RC Time Constant RC Time Constant
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.5</span> Capacitive Reactance Capacitive Reactance
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.6</span> Real Capacitors Real Capacitors
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.7</span> Capacitor Specifications Capacitor Specifications
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.8</span> Types of Capacitors Types of Capacitors
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.9</span> Capacitor Applications Capacitor Applications
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.10</span> Timing and Sample and Hold Timing and Sample and Hold
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.11</span> RC Ripple Filter RC Ripple Filter
      12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.12</span> Arc Suppression Arc Suppression
      13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.13</span> Supercapacitor Applications Supercapacitor Applications
      14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.6.14</span> Problems Problems
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.7</span> Inductors Inductors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.1</span> Inductance Inductance
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.2</span> Constructing Inductors Constructing Inductors
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.3</span> Inductors in Series and Parallel Inductors in Series and Parallel
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.4</span> RL Time Constant RL Time Constant
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.5</span> Inductive Reactance Inductive Reactance
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.6</span> Real Inductors Real Inductors
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.7</span> Inductor Specifications Inductor Specifications
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.8</span> Types of Inductors Types of Inductors
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.9</span> Reading Inductor Labels Reading Inductor Labels
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.10</span> Inductor Applications Inductor Applications
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.7.11</span> EMI/EMC Design Tips EMI/EMC Design Tips
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.8</span> Transformers Transformers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.1</span> Basic Operations Basic Operations
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.2</span> Transformer Construction Transformer Construction
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.3</span> Autotransformers and Variable Transformers Autotransformers and Variable Transformers
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.4</span> Circuit Isolation and the Isolation Transformer Circuit Isolation and the Isolation Transformer
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.5</span> Various Standard and Specialized Transformers Various Standard and Specialized Transformers
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.8.6</span> Transformer Applications Transformer Applications
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">3.9</span> Fuses and Circuit Breakers Fuses and Circuit Breakers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">3.9.1</span> Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers
  13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 4</span> Semiconductors Semiconductors
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.1</span> Semiconductor Technology Semiconductor Technology
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.1.1</span> What Is a Semiconductor? What Is a Semiconductor?
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.1.2</span> Applications of Silicon Applications of Silicon
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.2</span> Diodes Diodes
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.1</span> How p-n Junction Diodes Work How p-n Junction Diodes Work
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.2</span> Diode Water Analogy Diode Water Analogy
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.3</span> Kinds of Rectifiers/Diodes Kinds of Rectifiers/Diodes
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.4</span> Practical Considerations Practical Considerations
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.5</span> Diode/Rectifier Applications Diode/Rectifier Applications
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.6</span> Zener Diodes Zener Diodes
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.7</span> Zener Diode Applications Zener Diode Applications
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.8</span> Varactor Diodes (Variable Capacitance Diodes) Varactor Diodes (Variable Capacitance Diodes)
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.9</span> PIN Diodes PIN Diodes
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.10</span> Microwave Diodes (IMPATT, Gunn, Tunnel, etc.) Microwave Diodes (IMPATT, Gunn, Tunnel, etc.)
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.2.11</span> Problems Problems
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.3</span> Transistors Transistors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.1</span> Introduction to Transistors Introduction to Transistors
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.2</span> Bipolar Transistors Bipolar Transistors
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.3</span> Junction Field-Effect Transistors Junction Field-Effect Transistors
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.4</span> Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.5</span> Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.3.6</span> Unijunction Transistors Unijunction Transistors
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.4</span> Thyristors Thyristors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.4.1</span> Introduction Introduction
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.4.2</span> Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.4.3</span> Silicon-Controlled Switches Silicon-Controlled Switches
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.4.4</span> Triacs Triacs
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.4.5</span> Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.5</span> Transient Voltage Suppressors Transient Voltage Suppressors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.5.1</span> Lecture on Transients Lecture on Transients
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.5.2</span> Devices Used to Suppress Transients Devices Used to Suppress Transients
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">4.6</span> Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">4.6.1</span> IC Packages IC Packages
  14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 5</span> Optoelectronics Optoelectronics
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.1</span> A Little Lecture on Photons A Little Lecture on Photons
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.2</span> Lamps Lamps
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.3</span> Light-Emitting Diodes Light-Emitting Diodes
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.3.1</span> How an LED Works How an LED Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.3.2</span> Kinds of LEDs Kinds of LEDs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.3.3</span> More on LEDs More on LEDs
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.3.4</span> LED Applications LED Applications
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.3.5</span> Laser Diodes Laser Diodes
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.4</span> Photoresistors Photoresistors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.4.1</span> How a Photoresistor Works How a Photoresistor Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.4.2</span> Technical Stuff Technical Stuff
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.4.3</span> Applications Applications
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.5</span> Photodiodes Photodiodes
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.5.1</span> How a Photodiode Works How a Photodiode Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.5.2</span> Basic Operations Basic Operations
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.5.3</span> Kinds of Photodiodes Kinds of Photodiodes
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.6</span> Solar Cells Solar Cells
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.6.1</span> Basic Operations Basic Operations
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.7</span> Phototransistors Phototransistors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.7.1</span> How a Phototransistor Works How a Phototransistor Works
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.7.2</span> Basic Configurations Basic Configurations
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.7.3</span> Kinds of Phototransistors Kinds of Phototransistors
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.7.4</span> Technical Stuff Technical Stuff
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.7.5</span> Applications Applications
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.8</span> Photothyristors Photothyristors
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.8.1</span> How LASCRs Work How LASCRs Work
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.8.2</span> Basic Operation Basic Operation
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.9</span> Optoisolators Optoisolators
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.9.1</span> Integrated Optoisolators Integrated Optoisolators
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">5.9.2</span> Applications Applications
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">5.10</span> Optical Fiber Optical Fiber
  15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 6</span> Sensors Sensors
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.1</span> General Principals General Principals
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.1.1</span> Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.1.2</span> The Observer Effect The Observer Effect
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.1.3</span> Calibration Calibration
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.2</span> Temperature Temperature
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.1</span> Thermistors Thermistors
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.2</span> Thermocouples Thermocouples
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.3</span> Resistive Temperature Detectors Resistive Temperature Detectors
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.4</span> Analog Output Thermometer ICs Analog Output Thermometer ICs
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.5</span> Digital Thermometer ICs Digital Thermometer ICs
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.6</span> Infrared Thermometers/Pyrometers Infrared Thermometers/Pyrometers
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.2.7</span> Summary Summary
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.3</span> Proximity and Touch Proximity and Touch
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.3.1</span> Touch Screens Touch Screens
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.3.2</span> Ultrasonic Distance Ultrasonic Distance
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.3.3</span> Optical Distance Optical Distance
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.3.4</span> Capacitive Sensors Capacitive Sensors
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.3.5</span> Summary Summary
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.4</span> Movement, Force, and Pressure Movement, Force, and Pressure
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.1</span> Passive Infrared Passive Infrared
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.2</span> Acceleration Acceleration
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.3</span> Rotation Rotation
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.4</span> Flow Flow
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.5</span> Force Force
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.6</span> Tilt Tilt
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.7</span> Vibration and Mechanical Shock Vibration and Mechanical Shock
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.4.8</span> Pressure Pressure
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.5</span> Chemical Chemical
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.5.1</span> Smoke Smoke
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.5.2</span> Gas Gas
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.5.3</span> Humidity Humidity
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.6</span> Light, Radiation, Magnetism, and Sound Light, Radiation, Magnetism, and Sound
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.6.1</span> Light Light
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.6.2</span> Ionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.6.3</span> Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">6.6.4</span> Sound Sound
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">6.7</span> GPS GPS
  16. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 7</span> Hands-on Electronics Hands-on Electronics
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">7.1</span> Safety Safety
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.1.1</span> Lecture on Safety Lecture on Safety
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.1.2</span> Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.1.3</span> Component Handling Precautions Component Handling Precautions
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">7.2</span> Constructing Circuits Constructing Circuits
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.1</span> Drawing a Circuit Schematic Drawing a Circuit Schematic
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.2</span> A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.3</span> Making a Prototype of Your Circuit Making a Prototype of Your Circuit
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.4</span> The Final Circuit The Final Circuit
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.5</span> Making a PCB Making a PCB
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.6</span> Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.7</span> Soldering Soldering
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.8</span> Desoldering Desoldering
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.9</span> Enclosing the Circuit Enclosing the Circuit
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.10</span> Useful Items to Keep Handy Useful Items to Keep Handy
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.2.11</span> Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">7.3</span> Multimeters Multimeters
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.3.1</span> Basic Operation Basic Operation
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.3.2</span> How Analog VOMs Work How Analog VOMs Work
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.3.3</span> How Digital Multimeters Work How Digital Multimeters Work
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.3.4</span> A Note on Measurement Errors A Note on Measurement Errors
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">7.4</span> Oscilloscopes Oscilloscopes
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.1</span> How Scopes Work How Scopes Work
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.2</span> Interior Circuitry of a Scope Interior Circuitry of a Scope
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.3</span> Aiming the Beam Aiming the Beam
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.4</span> Scope Usage Scope Usage
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.5</span> What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.6</span> Measuring Things with Scopes Measuring Things with Scopes
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.7</span> Scope Applications Scope Applications
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.4.8</span> Measuring Impedances Measuring Impedances
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">7.5</span> The Electronics Laboratory The Electronics Laboratory
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.1</span> Work Area Work Area
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.2</span> Test Equipment Test Equipment
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.3</span> Multimeters Multimeters
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.4</span> DC Power Supplies DC Power Supplies
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.5</span> Oscilloscope Oscilloscope
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.6</span> Oscilloscope Probes Oscilloscope Probes
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.7</span> General-Purpose Function Generator General-Purpose Function Generator
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.8</span> Frequency Counter Frequency Counter
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.9</span> Computer Computer
      10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.10</span> Miscellaneous Test Equipment Miscellaneous Test Equipment
      11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.11</span> Multifunction PC Instruments Multifunction PC Instruments
      12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.12</span> Isolation Transformers Isolation Transformers
      13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.13</span> Variable Transformers, or Variacs Variable Transformers, or Variacs
      14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.14</span> Substitution Boxes Substitution Boxes
      15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.15</span> Test Cables, Connectors, and Adapters Test Cables, Connectors, and Adapters
      16. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.16</span> Soldering Equipment Soldering Equipment
      17. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.17</span> Prototyping Boards Prototyping Boards
      18. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.18</span> Hand Tools Hand Tools
      19. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.19</span> Wires, Cables, Hardware, and Chemicals Wires, Cables, Hardware, and Chemicals
      20. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.20</span> Electronics Catalogs Electronics Catalogs
      21. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.21</span> Recommended Electronics Parts Recommended Electronics Parts
      22. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.22</span> Electronic CAD Programs Electronic CAD Programs
      23. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">7.5.23</span> Building Your Own Workbench Building Your Own Workbench
  17. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 8</span> Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.1</span> Operational Amplifier Water Analogy Operational Amplifier Water Analogy
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.2</span> How Op Amps Work (The &#8220;Cop-Out&#8221; Explanation) How Op Amps Work (The “Cop-Out” Explanation)
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.3</span> Theory Theory
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.4</span> Negative Feedback Negative Feedback
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.5</span> Positive Feedback Positive Feedback
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.6</span> Real Kinds of Op Amps Real Kinds of Op Amps
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.7</span> Op Amp Specifications Op Amp Specifications
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.8</span> Powering Op Amps Powering Op Amps
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.9</span> Some Practical Notes Some Practical Notes
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.10</span> Voltage and Current Offset Compensation Voltage and Current Offset Compensation
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.11</span> Frequency Compensation Frequency Compensation
    12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.12</span> Comparators Comparators
    13. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.13</span> Comparators with Hysteresis Comparators with Hysteresis
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">8.13.1</span> Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">8.13.2</span> Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis
    14. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.14</span> Using Single-Supply Comparators Using Single-Supply Comparators
    15. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.15</span> Window Comparator Window Comparator
    16. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.16</span> Voltage-Level Indicator Voltage-Level Indicator
    17. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.17</span> Instrumentation Amplifiers Instrumentation Amplifiers
    18. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">8.18</span> Applications Applications
  18. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 9</span> Filters Filters
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.1</span> Things to Know Before You Start Designing Filters Things to Know Before You Start Designing Filters
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.2</span> Basic Filters Basic Filters
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.3</span> Passive Low-Pass Filter Design Passive Low-Pass Filter Design
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.4</span> A Note on Filter Types A Note on Filter Types
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.5</span> Passive High-Pass Filter Design Passive High-Pass Filter Design
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.6</span> Passive Bandpass Filter Design Passive Bandpass Filter Design
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.7</span> Passive Notch Filter Design Passive Notch Filter Design
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.8</span> Active Filter Design Active Filter Design
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">9.8.1</span> Active Low-Pass Filter Example Active Low-Pass Filter Example
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">9.8.2</span> Active High-Pass Filter Example Active High-Pass Filter Example
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">9.8.3</span> Active Bandpass Filters Active Bandpass Filters
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">9.8.4</span> Active Notch Filters Active Notch Filters
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">9.9</span> Integrated Filter Circuits Integrated Filter Circuits
  19. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 10</span> Oscillators and Timers Oscillators and Timers
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.1</span> RC Relaxation Oscillators RC Relaxation Oscillators
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.2</span> The 555 Timer IC The 555 Timer IC
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.1</span> How a 555 Works (Astable Operation) How a 555 Works (Astable Operation)
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.2</span> Basic Astable Operation Basic Astable Operation
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.3</span> How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation) How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation)
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.4</span> Basic Monostable Operation Basic Monostable Operation
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.5</span> Some Important Notes about 555 Timers Some Important Notes about 555 Timers
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">10.2.6</span> Simple 555 Applications Simple 555 Applications
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.3</span> Voltage-Controlled Oscillators Voltage-Controlled Oscillators
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.4</span> Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.5</span> LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators) LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators)
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.6</span> Crystal Oscillators Crystal Oscillators
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">10.7</span> Microcontroller Oscillators Microcontroller Oscillators
  20. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 11</span> Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.1</span> Voltage-Regulator ICs Voltage-Regulator ICs
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">11.1.1</span> Fixed-Regulator ICs Fixed-Regulator ICs
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">11.1.2</span> Adjustable-Regulator ICs Adjustable-Regulator ICs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">11.1.3</span> Regulator Specifications Regulator Specifications
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.2</span> A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.3</span> The Transformer The Transformer
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.4</span> Rectifier Packages Rectifier Packages
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.5</span> A Few Simple Power Supplies A Few Simple Power Supplies
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.6</span> Technical Points about Ripple Reduction Technical Points about Ripple Reduction
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.7</span> Loose Ends Loose Ends
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.8</span> Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers) Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers)
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.9</span> Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.10</span> Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">11.11</span> Power Supply Construction Power Supply Construction
  21. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 12</span> Digital Electronics Digital Electronics
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.1</span> The Basics of Digital Electronics The Basics of Digital Electronics
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.1.1</span> Digital Logic States Digital Logic States
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.1.2</span> Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.1.3</span> Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial Transmission Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial Transmission
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.2</span> Logic Gates Logic Gates
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.2.1</span> Multiple-Input Logic Gates Multiple-Input Logic Gates
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.2.2</span> Digital Logic Gate ICs Digital Logic Gate ICs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.2.3</span> Applications for a Single Logic Gate Applications for a Single Logic Gate
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.2.4</span> Combinational Logic Combinational Logic
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.2.5</span> Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps) Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps)
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.3</span> Combinational Devices Combinational Devices
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.1</span> Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.2</span> Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.3</span> Encoders and Code Converters Encoders and Code Converters
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.4</span> Binary Adders Binary Adders
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.5</span> Binary Adder/Subtractor Binary Adder/Subtractor
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.6</span> Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.3.7</span> A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend Toward Microcontroller Control A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend Toward Microcontroller Control
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.4</span> Logic Families Logic Families
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.4.1</span> CMOS Family of ICs CMOS Family of ICs
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.4.2</span> I/O Voltages and Noise Margins I/O Voltages and Noise Margins
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.4.3</span> Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.5</span> Powering and Testing Logic ICs Powering and Testing Logic ICs
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.5.1</span> Power Supply Decoupling Power Supply Decoupling
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.5.2</span> Unused Inputs Unused Inputs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.5.3</span> Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.6</span> Sequential Logic Sequential Logic
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.1</span> SR Flip-Flops SR Flip-Flops
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.2</span> SR Flip-Flop ICs SR Flip-Flop ICs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.3</span> D-Type Flip-Flops D-Type Flip-Flops
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.4</span> Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.5</span> JK Flip-Flops JK Flip-Flops
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.6</span> Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.7</span> Digital Clock Generators and Single-Pulse Generators Digital Clock Generators and Single-Pulse Generators
      8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.8</span> Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits
      9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.6.9</span> Pullup and Pulldown Resistors Pullup and Pulldown Resistors
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.7</span> Counter ICs Counter ICs
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.7.1</span> Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.7.2</span> Synchronous Counter ICs Synchronous Counter ICs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.7.3</span> A Note on Counters with Displays A Note on Counters with Displays
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.8</span> Shift Registers Shift Registers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.1</span> Serial-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers Serial-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.2</span> Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.3</span> Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.4</span> Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer) Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer)
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.5</span> Johnson Shift Counter Johnson Shift Counter
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.6</span> Shift Register ICs Shift Register ICs
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.8.7</span> Simple Shift Register Applications Simple Shift Register Applications
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.9</span> Analog/Digital Interfacing Analog/Digital Interfacing
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.1</span> Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.2</span> Using Logic to Drive External Loads Using Logic to Drive External Loads
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.3</span> Analog Switches Analog Switches
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.4</span> Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.5</span> Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.9.6</span> Analog-to-Digital Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.10</span> Displays Displays
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.10.1</span> LED Displays LED Displays
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.10.2</span> Liquid-Crystal Displays Liquid-Crystal Displays
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">12.11</span> Memory Devices Memory Devices
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.1</span> Read-Only Memory Read-Only Memory
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.2</span> Simple ROM Made Using Diodes Simple ROM Made Using Diodes
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.3</span> Memory Size and Organization Memory Size and Organization
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.4</span> Simple Programmable ROM Simple Programmable ROM
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.5</span> ROM Devices ROM Devices
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">12.11.6</span> RAM RAM
  22. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 13</span> Microcontrollers Microcontrollers
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">13.1</span> Basic Structure of a Microcontroller Basic Structure of a Microcontroller
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">13.2</span> Example Microcontrollers Example Microcontrollers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.2.1</span> The ATtiny85 Microcontroller The ATtiny85 Microcontroller
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.2.2</span> The PIC16Cx Microcontrollers The PIC16Cx Microcontrollers
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.2.3</span> 32-Bit Microcontrollers 32-Bit Microcontrollers
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.2.4</span> Digital Signal Processing Digital Signal Processing
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">13.3</span> Evaluation/Development Boards Evaluation/Development Boards
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">13.4</span> Arduino Arduino
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.1</span> A Tour of Arduino A Tour of Arduino
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.2</span> The Arduino IDE The Arduino IDE
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.3</span> Arduino Board Models Arduino Board Models
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.4</span> Shields Shields
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.5</span> The Arduino C Library The Arduino C Library
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.6</span> Arduino Example Project Arduino Example Project
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.4.7</span> Taking the Arduino Offboard Taking the Arduino Offboard
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">13.5</span> Interfacing with Microcontrollers Interfacing with Microcontrollers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.1</span> Switches Switches
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.2</span> Analog Inputs Analog Inputs
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.3</span> High-Power Digital Outputs High-Power Digital Outputs
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.4</span> Sound Interfaces Sound Interfaces
      5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.5</span> Serial Interfaces Serial Interfaces
      6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.6</span> Level Conversion Level Conversion
      7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">13.5.7</span> LED Display Interfaces LED Display Interfaces
  23. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 14</span> Programmable Logic Programmable Logic
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.1</span> Programmable Logic Programmable Logic
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.2</span> FPGAs FPGAs
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.3</span> ISE and the Elbert V2 ISE and the Elbert V2
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.3.1</span> Installing ISE Installing ISE
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.4</span> The Elbert 2 Board The Elbert 2 Board
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.4.1</span> Installing the Elbert Software Installing the Elbert Software
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.5</span> Downloads Downloads
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.6</span> Drawing Your FPGA Logic Design Drawing Your FPGA Logic Design
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.6.1</span> Example 1: A Data Selector Example 1: A Data Selector
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.6.2</span> Example 2: A 4-bit Ripple Counter Example 2: A 4-bit Ripple Counter
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.7</span> Verilog Verilog
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.7.1</span> Modules Modules
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.7.2</span> Wires, Registers, and Busses Wires, Registers, and Busses
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.7.3</span> Parallel Execution Parallel Execution
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.7.4</span> Number Format Number Format
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.8</span> Describing Your FPGA Design in Verilog Describing Your FPGA Design in Verilog
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.8.1</span> A Data Selector in Verilog A Data Selector in Verilog
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.8.2</span> A Ripple Counter in Verilog A Ripple Counter in Verilog
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.9</span> Modular Design Modular Design
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.9.1</span> Counter/Decoder Example Counter/Decoder Example
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.9.2</span> Multiplexed 7-Segment Counter Example Multiplexed 7-Segment Counter Example
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">14.9.3</span> Parameterized Modules Parameterized Modules
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.10</span> Simulation Simulation
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">14.11</span> VHDL VHDL
  24. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 15</span> Motors Motors
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.1</span> DC Continuous Motors DC Continuous Motors
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.2</span> Speed Control of DC Motors Speed Control of DC Motors
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.3</span> Directional Control of DC Motors Directional Control of DC Motors
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.4</span> RC Servos RC Servos
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.5</span> Stepper Motors Stepper Motors
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.6</span> Kinds of Stepper Motors Kinds of Stepper Motors
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.7</span> Driving Stepper Motors Driving Stepper Motors
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.8</span> Controlling the Driver with a Translator Controlling the Driver with a Translator
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">15.9</span> A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors
  25. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 16</span> Audio Electronics Audio Electronics
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.1</span> A Little Lecture on Sound A Little Lecture on Sound
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.2</span> Microphones Microphones
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.3</span> Microphone Specifications Microphone Specifications
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.4</span> Audio Amplifiers Audio Amplifiers
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">16.4.1</span> Inverting Amplifier Inverting Amplifier
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">16.4.2</span> Noninverting Amplifier Noninverting Amplifier
      3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">16.4.3</span> Digital Amplifiers Digital Amplifiers
      4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">16.4.4</span> Reducing Hum in Audio Amplifiers Reducing Hum in Audio Amplifiers
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.5</span> Preamplifiers Preamplifiers
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.6</span> Mixer Circuits Mixer Circuits
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.7</span> A Note on Impedance Matching A Note on Impedance Matching
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.8</span> Speakers Speakers
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.9</span> Crossover Networks Crossover Networks
    10. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.10</span> Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers
    11. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.11</span> Audible-Signal Devices Audible-Signal Devices
    12. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">16.12</span> Miscellaneous Audio Circuits Miscellaneous Audio Circuits
  26. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">CHAPTER 17</span> Modular Electronics Modular Electronics
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">17.1</span> There&#8217;s an IC for It There’s an IC for It
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">17.2</span> Breakout Boards and Modules Breakout Boards and Modules
      1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">17.2.1</span> Radio Frequency Modules Radio Frequency Modules
      2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label1">17.2.2</span> Audio Modules Audio Modules
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">17.3</span> Plug-and-Play Prototyping Plug-and-Play Prototyping
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label">17.4</span> Open Source Hardware Open Source Hardware
  27. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">APPENDIX A</span> Power Distribution and Home Wiring Power Distribution and Home Wiring
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">A.1</span> Power Distribution Power Distribution
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">A.2</span> A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">A.3</span> Home Wiring Home Wiring
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">A.4</span> Electricity in Other Countries Electricity in Other Countries
  28. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">APPENDIX B</span> Error Analysis Error Analysis
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">B.1</span> Absolute Error, Relative Error, and Percent Error Absolute Error, Relative Error, and Percent Error
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">B.2</span> Uncertainty Estimates Uncertainty Estimates
  29. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label2">APPENDIX C</span> Useful Facts and Formulas Useful Facts and Formulas
    1. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.1</span> Greek Alphabet Greek Alphabet
    2. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.2</span> Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes
    3. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.3</span> Linear Functions (y = mx + b) Linear Functions (y = mx + b)
    4. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.4</span> Quadratic Equation (y = ax Quadratic Equation (y = ax<sup xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sup> + bx + c) + bx + c)
    5. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.5</span> Exponents and Logarithms Exponents and Logarithms
    6. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.6</span> Trigonometry Trigonometry
    7. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.7</span> Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
    8. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.8</span> Differential Calculus Differential Calculus
    9. <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="toc-label3">C.9</span> Integral Calculus Integral Calculus
  30. Index