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Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition

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THE ELECTRONICS KNOW-HOW YOU NEED TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR“If there is a successor to Make: Electronics, then I believe it would have to be Practical Electronics for Inventors.perfect for an electrical engineering student or maybe a high school student with a strong aptitude for electronics.I’ve been anxiously awaiting this update, and it was well worth the wait.”

Table of Contents

  1. Cover 
  2. About The Authors
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents 
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Chapter 1. Introduction to Electronics
  9. Chapter 2. Theory
    1. 2.1 Theory of Electronics
    2. 2.2 Electric Current
      1. 2.2.1 Currents in Perspective
    3. 2.3 Voltage
      1. 2.3.1 The Mechanisms of Voltage
      2. 2.3.2 Definition of Volt and Generalized Power Law
      3. 2.3.3 Combining Batteries
      4. 2.3.4 Other Voltage Sources
      5. 2.3.5 Water Analogies
    4. 2.4 A Microscopic View of Conduction (For Those Who Are Interested)
      1. 2.4.1 Applying a Voltage
    5. 2.5 Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity
      1. 2.5.1 How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance
      2. 2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity
    6. 2.6 Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors
    7. 2.7 Heat and Power
    8. 2.8 Thermal Heat Conduction and Thermal Resistance
      1. 2.8.1 Importance of Heat Production
    9. 2.9 Wire Gauges
    10. 2.10 Grounds
      1. 2.10.1 Earth Ground
      2. 2.10.2 Different Types of Ground Symbols
      3. 2.10.3 Loose Ends on Grounding
    11. 2.11 Electric Circuits
    12. 2.12 Ohm’s Law and Resistors
      1. 2.12.1 Resistor Power Ratings
      2. 2.12.2 Resistors in Parallel
      3. 2.12.3 Resistors in Series
      4. 2.12.4 Reducing a Complex Resistor Network
      5. 2.12.5 Multiple Voltage Dividers
    13. 2.13 Voltage and Current Sources
    14. 2.14 Measuring Voltage, Current, and Resistance
    15. 2.15 Combining Batteries
    16. 2.16 Open and Short Circuits
    17. 2.17 Kirchhoff’s Laws
    18. 2.18 Superposition Theorem
    19. 2.19 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems
      1. 2.19.1 Thevenin’s Theorem
      2. 2.19.2 Norton’s Theorem
    20. 2.20 AC Circuits
      1. 2.20.1 Generating AC
      2. 2.20.2 Water Analogy of AC
      3. 2.20.3 Pulsating DC
      4. 2.20.4 Combining Sinusoidal Sources
      5. 2.20.5 AC Waveforms
      6. 2.20.6 Describing an AC Waveform
      7. 2.20.7 Frequency and Period
      8. 2.20.8 Phase
    21. 2.21 AC and Resistors, RMS Voltage, and Current
    22. 2.22 Mains Power
    23. 2.23 Capacitors
      1. 2.23.1 Determining Capacitance
      2. 2.23.2 Commercial Capacitors
      3. 2.23.3 Voltage Rating and Dielectric Breakdown
      4. 2.23.4 Maxwell’s Displacement Current
      5. 2.23.5 Charge-Based Model of Current Through a Capacitor
      6. 2.23.6 Capacitor Water Analogy
      7. 2.23.7 Energy in a Capacitor
      8. 2.23.8 RC Time Constant
      9. 2.23.9 Stray Capacitance
      10. 2.23.10 Capacitors in Parallel
      11. 2.23.11 Capacitors in Series
      12. 2.23.12 Alternating Current in a Capacitor
      13. 2.23.13 Capacitive Reactance
      14. 2.23.14 Capacitive Divider
      15. 2.23.15 Quality Factor
    24. 2.24 Inductors
      1. 2.24.1 Electromagnetism
      2. 2.24.2 Magnetic Fields and Their Influence
      3. 2.24.3 Self-Inductance
      4. 2.24.4 Inductors
      5. 2.24.5 Inductor Water Analogy
      6. 2.24.6 Inductor Equations
      7. 2.24.7 Energy Within an Inductor
      8. 2.24.8 Inductor Cores
      9. 2.24.9 Understanding the Inductor Equations
      10. 2.24.10 Energizing LR Circuit
      11. 2.24.11 Deenergizing LR Circuit
      12. 2.24.12 Voltage Spikes Due to Switching
      13. 2.24.13 Straight-Wire Inductance
      14. 2.24.14 Mutual Inductance and Magnetic Coupling
      15. 2.24.15 Unwanted Coupling: Spikes, Lightning, and Other Pulses
      16. 2.24.16 Inductors in Series and Parallel
      17. 2.24.17 Alternating Current and Inductors
      18. 2.24.18 Inductive Reactance
      19. 2.24.19 Nonideal Inductor Model
      20. 2.24.20 Quality Factor
      21. 2.24.21 Inductor Applications
    25. 2.25 Modeling Complex Circuits
    26. 2.26 Complex Numbers
    27. 2.27 Circuit with Sinusoidal Sources
      1. 2.27.1 Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances
      2. 2.27.2 Sinusoidal Voltage Source in Complex Notation
      3. 2.27.3 Odd Phenomena in Reactive Circuits
    28. 2.28 Power in AC Circuits (Apparent Power, Real Power, Reactive Power)
      1. 2.28.1 Power Factor
    29. 2.29 Thevenin’s Theorem in AC Form
    30. 2.30 Resonant Circuits
      1. 2.30.1 Resonance in RLC Circuits
      2. 2.30.2 Q (Quality Factor) and Bandwidth
      3. 2.30.3 Bandwidth
      4. 2.30.4 Voltage Drop Across Components in RLC Resonant Circuit
      5. 2.30.5 Capacitor Losses
      6. 2.30.6 Parallel-Resonant Circuits
      7. 2.30.7 The Q of Loaded Circuits
    31. 2.31 Lecture on Decibels
      1. 2.31.1 Alternative Decibel Representations
    32. 2.32 Input and Output Impedance
      1. 2.32.1 Input Impedance
      2. 2.32.2 Output Impedance
    33. 2.33 Two-Port Networks and Filters
      1. 2.33.1 Filters
      2. 2.33.2 Attenuators
    34. 2.34 Transient Circuits
      1. 2.34.1 Series RLC Circuit
    35. 2.35 Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources
      1. 2.35.1 Fourier Series
    36. 2.36 Nonperiodic Sources
    37. 2.37 SPICE
      1. 2.37.1 How SPICE Works
      2. 2.37.2 Limitations of SPICE and Other Simulators
      3. 2.37.3 A Simple Simulation Example
  10. Chapter 3. Basic Electronic Circuit Components
    1. 3.1 Wires, Cables, and Connectors
      1. 3.1.1 Wires
      2. 3.1.2 Cables
      3. 3.1.3 Connectors
      4. 3.1.4 Wiring and Connector Symbols
      5. 3.1.5 High-Frequency Effects Within Wires and Cables
    2. 3.2 Batteries
      1. 3.2.1 How a Cell Works
      2. 3.2.2 Primary Batteries
      3. 3.2.3 Comparing Primary Batteries
      4. 3.2.4 Secondary Batteries
      5. 3.2.5 Battery Capacity
      6. 3.2.6 Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery
    3. 3.3 Switches
      1. 3.3.1 How a Switch Works
      2. 3.3.2 Describing a Switch
      3. 3.3.3 Kinds of Switches
      4. 3.3.4 Simple Switch Applications
    4. 3.4 Relays
      1. 3.4.1 Specific Kinds of Relays
      2. 3.4.2 A Few Notes about Relays
      3. 3.4.3 Some Simple Relay Circuits
    5. 3.5 Resistors
      1. 3.5.1 Resistance and Ohm’s Law
      2. 3.5.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      3. 3.5.3 Reading Resistor Labels
      4. 3.5.4 Real Resistor Characteristics
      5. 3.5.5 Types of Resistors
      6. 3.5.6 Variable Resistors (Rheostats, Potentiometers, Trimmers)
      7. 3.5.7 Potentiometer Characteristics
    6. 3.6 Capacitors
      1. 3.6.1 Capacitance
      2. 3.6.2 Capacitors in Parallel
      3. 3.6.3 Capacitors in Series
      4. 3.6.4 RC Time Constant
      5. 3.6.5 Capacitive Reactance
      6. 3.6.6 Real Capacitors
      7. 3.6.7 Capacitor Specifications
      8. 3.6.8 Types of Capacitors
      9. 3.6.9 Capacitor Applications
      10. 3.6.10 Timing and Sample and Hold
      11. 3.6.11 RC Ripple Filter
      12. 3.6.12 Arc Suppression
      13. 3.6.13 Supercapacitor Applications
      14. 3.6.14 Problems
    7. 3.7 Inductors
      1. 3.7.1 Inductance
      2. 3.7.2 Constructing Inductors
      3. 3.7.3 Inductors in Series and Parallel
      4. 3.7.4 RL Time Constant
      5. 3.7.5 Inductive Reactance
      6. 3.7.6 Real Inductors
      7. 3.7.7 Inductor Specifications
      8. 3.7.8 Types of Inductors
      9. 3.7.9 Reading Inductor Labels
      10. 3.7.10 Inductor Applications
      11. 3.7.11 EMI/EMC Design Tips
    8. 3.8 Transformers
      1. 3.8.1 Basic Operations
      2. 3.8.2 Transformer Construction
      3. 3.8.3 Autotransformers and Variable Transformers
      4. 3.8.4 Circuit Isolation and the Isolation Transformer
      5. 3.8.5 Various Standard and Specialized Transformers
      6. 3.8.6 Transformer Applications
    9. 3.9 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
      1. 3.9.1 Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers
  11. Chapter 4. Semiconductors
    1. 4.1 Semiconductor Technology
      1. 4.1.1 What Is a Semiconductor?
      2. 4.1.2 Applications of Silicon
    2. 4.2 Diodes
      1. 4.2.1 How p-n Junction Diodes Work
      2. 4.2.2 Diode Water Analogy
      3. 4.2.3 Kinds of Rectifiers/Diodes
      4. 4.2.4 Practical Considerations
      5. 4.2.5 Diode/Rectifier Applications
      6. 4.2.6 Zener Diodes
      7. 4.2.7 Zener Diode Applications
      8. 4.2.8 Varactor Diodes (Variable Capacitance Diodes)
      9. 4.2.9 PIN Diodes
      10. 4.2.10 Microwave Diodes (IMPATT, Gunn, Tunnel, etc.)
      11. 4.2.11 Problems
    3. 4.3 Transistors
      1. 4.3.1 Introduction to Transistors
      2. 4.3.2 Bipolar Transistors
      3. 4.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors
      4. 4.3.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
      5. 4.3.5 Unijunction Transistors
    4. 4.4 Thyristors
      1. 4.4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.4.2 Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
      3. 4.4.3 Silicon-Controlled Switches
      4. 4.4.4 Triacs
      5. 4.4.5 Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs
    5. 4.5 Transient Voltage Suppressors
      1. 4.5.1 Lecture on Transients
      2. 4.5.2 Devices Used to Suppress Transients
    6. 4.6 Integrated Circuits
      1. 4.6.1 IC Packages
  12. Chapter 5. Optoelectronics
    1. 5.1 A Little Lecture on Photons
    2. 5.2 Lamps
    3. 5.3 Light-Emitting Diodes
      1. 5.3.1 How an LED Works
      2. 5.3.2 Kinds of LEDs
      3. 5.3.3 More on LEDs
      4. 5.3.4 LED Applications
      5. 5.3.5 Laser Diodes
    4. 5.4 Photoresistors
      1. 5.4.1 How a Photoresistor Works
      2. 5.4.2 Technical Stuff
      3. 5.4.3 Applications
    5. 5.5 Photodiodes
      1. 5.5.1 How a Photodiode Works
      2. 5.5.2 Basic Operations
      3. 5.5.3 Kinds of Photodiodes
    6. 5.6 Solar Cells
      1. 5.6.1 Basic Operations
    7. 5.7 Phototransistors
      1. 5.7.1 How a Phototransistor Works
      2. 5.7.2 Basic Configurations
      3. 5.7.3 Kinds of Phototransistors
      4. 5.7.4 Technical Stuff
      5. 5.7.5 Applications
    8. 5.8 Photothyristors
      1. 5.8.1 How LASCRs Work
      2. 5.8.2 Basic Operation
    9. 5.9 Optoisolators
      1. 5.9.1 Integrated Optoisolators
      2. 5.9.2 Applications 5.10 Optical Fiber
    10. 5.10 Optical Fiber
  13. Chapter 6. Sensors
    1. 6.1 General Principals
      1. 6.1.1 Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution
      2. 6.1.2 The Observer Effect
      3. 6.1.3 Calibration
    2. 6.2 Temperature
      1. 6.2.1 Thermistors
      2. 6.2.2 Thermocouples
      3. 6.2.3 Resistive Temperature Detectors
      4. 6.2.4 Analog Output Thermometer ICs
      5. 6.2.5 Digital Thermometer ICs
      6. 6.2.6 Infrared Thermometers/Pyrometers
      7. 6.2.7 Summary
    3. 6.3 Proximity and Touch
      1. 6.3.1 Touch Screens
      2. 6.3.2 Ultrasonic Distance
      3. 6.3.3 Optical Distance
      4. 6.3.4 Capacitive Sensors
      5. 6.3.5 Summary
    4. 6.4 Movement, Force, and Pressure
      1. 6.4.1 Passive Infrared
      2. 6.4.2 Acceleration
      3. 6.4.3 Rotation
      4. 6.4.4 Flow
      5. 6.4.5 Force
      6. 6.4.6 Tilt
      7. 6.4.7 Vibration and Mechanical Shock
      8. 6.4.8 Pressure
    5. 6.5 Chemical
      1. 6.5.1 Smoke
      2. 6.5.2 Gas
      3. 6.5.3 Humidity
    6. 6.6 Light, Radiation, Magnetism, and Sound
      1. 6.6.1 Light
      2. 6.6.2 Ionizing Radiation
      3. 6.6.3 Magnetic Fields
      4. 6.6.4 Sound
    7. 6.7 GPS
  14. Chapter 7. Hands-on Electronics
    1. 7.1 Safety
      1. 7.1.1 Lecture on Safety
      2. 7.1.2 Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge
      3. 7.1.3 Component Handling Precautions
    2. 7.2 Constructing Circuits
      1. 7.2.1 Drawing a Circuit Schematic
      2. 7.2.2 A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs
      3. 7.2.3 Making a Prototype of Your Circuit
      4. 7.2.4 The Final Circuit
      5. 7.2.5 Making a PCB
      6. 7.2.6 Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction
      7. 7.2.7 Soldering
      8. 7.2.8 Desoldering
      9. 7.2.9 Enclosing the Circuit
      10. 7.2.10 Useful Items to Keep Handy
      11. 7.2.11 Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build
    3. 7.3 Multimeters
      1. 7.3.1 Basic Operation
      2. 7.3.2 How Analog VOMs Work
      3. 7.3.3 How Digital Multimeters Work
      4. 7.3.4 A Note on Measurement Errors
    4. 7.4 Oscilloscopes
      1. 7.4.1 How Scopes Work
      2. 7.4.2 Interior Circuitry of a Scope
      3. 7.4.3 Aiming the Beam
      4. 7.4.4 Scope Usage
      5. 7.4.5 What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do
      6. 7.4.6 Measuring Things with Scopes
      7. 7.4.7 Scope Applications
      8. 7.4.8 Measuring Impedances
    5. 7.5 The Electronics Laboratory
      1. 7.5.1 Work Area
      2. 7.5.2 Test Equipment
      3. 7.5.3 Multimeters
      4. 7.5.4 DC Power Supplies
      5. 7.5.5 Oscilloscope
      6. 7.5.6 Oscilloscope Probes
      7. 7.5.7 General-Purpose Function Generator
      8. 7.5.8 Frequency Counter
      9. 7.5.9 Computer
      10. 7.5.10 Miscellaneous Test Equipment
      11. 7.5.11 Multifunction PC Instruments
      12. 7.5.12 Isolation Transformers
      13. 7.5.13 Variable Transformers, or Variacs
      14. 7.5.14 Substitution Boxes
      15. 7.5.15 Test Cables, Connectors, and Adapters
      16. 7.5.16 Soldering Equipment
      17. 7.5.17 Prototyping Boards
      18. 7.5.18 Hand Tools
      19. 7.5.19 Wires, Cables, Hardware, and Chemicals
      20. 7.5.20 Electronics Catalogs
      21. 7.5.21 Recommended Electronics Parts
      22. 7.5.22 Electronic CAD Programs
      23. 7.5.23 Building Your Own Workbench
  15. Chapter 8. Operational Amplifiers
    1. 8.1 Operational Amplifier Water Analogy
    2. 8.2 How Op Amps Work (The “Cop-Out” Explanation)
    3. 8.3 Theory
    4. 8.4 Negative Feedback
    5. 8.5 Positive Feedback
    6. 8.6 Real Kinds of Op Amps
    7. 8.7 Op Amp Specifications
    8. 8.8 Powering Op Amps
    9. 8.9 Some Practical Notes
    10. 8.10 Voltage and Current Offset Compensation
    11. 8.11 Frequency Compensation
    12. 8.12 Comparators
    13. 8.13 Comparators with Hysteresis
      1. 8.13.1 Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis
      2. 8.13.2 Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis
    14. 8.14 Using Single-Supply Comparators
    15. 8.15 Window Comparator
    16. 8.16 Voltage-Level Indicator
    17. 8.17 Applications
  16. Chapter 9. Filters
    1. 9.1 Things to Know Before You Start Designing Filters
    2. 9.2 Basic Filters
    3. 9.3 Passive Low-Pass Filter Design
    4. 9.4 A Note on Filter Types
    5. 9.5 Passive High-Pass Filter Design
    6. 9.6 Passive Bandpass Filter Design
    7. 9.7 Passive Notch Filter Design
    8. 9.8 Active Filter Design
      1. 9.8.1 Active Low-Pass Filter Example
      2. 9.8.2 Active High-Pass Filter Example
      3. 9.8.3 Active Bandpass Filters
      4. 9.8.4 Active Notch Filters
    9. 9.9 Integrated Filter Circuits
  17. Chapter 10. Oscillators and Timers
    1. 10.1 RC Relaxation Oscillators
    2. 10.2 The 555 Timer IC
      1. 10.2.1 How a 555 Works (Astable Operation)
      2. 10.2.2 Basic Astable Operation
      3. 10.2.3 How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation)
      4. 10.2.4 Basic Monostable Operation
      5. 10.2.5 Some Important Notes About 555 Timers
      6. 10.2.6 Simple 555 Applications
    3. 10.3 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators
    4. 10.4 Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators
    5. 10.5 LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators)
    6. 10.6 Crystal Oscillators
    7. 10.7 Microcontroller Oscillators
  18. Chapter 11. Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies
    1. 11.1 Voltage-Regulator ICs
      1. 11.1.1 Fixed Regulator ICs
      2. 11.1.2 Adjustable Regulator ICs
      3. 11.1.3 Regulator Specifications
    2. 11.2 A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications
    3. 11.3 The Transformer
    4. 11.4 Rectifier Packages
    5. 11.5 A Few Simple Power Supplies
    6. 11.6 Technical Points About Ripple Reduction
    7. 11.7 Loose Ends
    8. 11.8 Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers)
    9. 11.9 Switch-Mode Power Supplies
    10. 11.10 Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages
    11. 11.11 Power Supply Construction
  19. Chapter 12. Digital Electronics
    1. 12.1 The Basics of Digital Electronics
      1. 12.1.1 Digital Logic States
      2. 12.1.2 Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics
      3. 12.1.3 Clock Timing and Parallel Versus Serial Transmission
    2. 12.2 Logic Gates
      1. 12.2.1 Multiple-Input Logic Gates
      2. 12.2.2 Digital Logic Gate ICs
      3. 12.2.3 Applications for a Single Logic Gate
      4. 12.2.4 Combinational Logic
      5. 12.2.5 Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps)
    3. 12.3 Combinational Devices
      1. 12.3.1 Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches
      2. 12.3.2 Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders
      3. 12.3.3 Encoders and Code Converters
      4. 12.3.4 Binary Adders
      5. 12.3.5 Binary Adder/Subtractor
      6. 12.3.6 Arithmetic Logic Units
      7. 12.3.7 Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs
      8. 12.3.8 Parity Generator/Checker
      9. 12.3.9 A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend Toward Microcontroller Control
    4. 12.4 Logic Families
      1. 12.4.1 TTL Family of ICs
      2. 12.4.2 CMOS Family of ICs
      3. 12.4.3 I/O Voltages and Noise Margins
      4. 12.4.4 Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays
      5. 12.4.5 A Detailed Look at the TTL and CMOS Subfamilies
      6. 12.4.6 A Look at a Few Other Logic Series
      7. 12.4.7 Logic Gates with Open-Collector Outputs
      8. 12.4.8 Schmitt-Triggered Gates
      9. 12.4.9 Interfacing Logic Families
    5. 12.5 Powering and Testing Logic ICs
      1. 12.5.1 Power Supply Decoupling
      2. 12.5.2 Unused Inputs
      3. 12.5.3 Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers
    6. 12.6 Sequential Logic
      1. 12.6.1 SR Flip-Flops
      2. 12.6.2 SR Flip-Flop ICs
      3. 12.6.3 D-Type Flip-Flops
      4. 12.6.4 Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops
      5. 12.6.5 JK Flip-Flops
      6. 12.6.6 Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops
      7. 12.6.7 Digital Clock Generators and Single-Pulse Generators
      8. 12.6.8 Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits
      9. 12.6.9 More on Switch Debouncers
      10. 12.6.10 Pullup and Pulldown Resistors
    7. 12.7 Counter ICs
      1. 12.7.1 Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs
      2. 12.7.2 Synchronous Counter ICs
      3. 12.7.3 A Note on Counters with Displays
    8. 12.8 Shift Registers
      1. 12.8.1 Serial-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers
      2. 12.8.2 Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers
      3. 12.8.3 Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers
      4. 12.8.4 Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer)
      5. 12.8.5 Johnson Shift Counter
      6. 12.8.6 Shift Register ICs
      7. 12.8.7 Simple Shift Register Applications
    9. 12.9 Three-State Buffers, Latches, and Transceivers
      1. 12.9.1 Three-State Octal Buffers
      2. 12.9.2 Three-State Octal Latches and Flip-Flops
      3. 12.9.3 Transceivers
    10. 12.10 Analog/Digital Interfacing
      1. 12.10.1 Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals
      2. 12.10.2 Using Logic to Drive External Loads
      3. 12.10.3 Analog Switches
      4. 12.10.4 Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
      5. 12.10.5 Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion
      6. 12.10.6 Analog-to-Digital Converters
    11. 12.11 Displays
      1. 12.11.1 LED Displays
      2. 12.11.2 Liquid-Crystal Displays
    12. 12.12 Memory Devices
      1. 12.12.1 Read-Only Memory
      2. 12.12.2 Simple ROM Made Using Diodes
      3. 12.12.3 Memory Size and Organization
      4. 12.12.4 Simple Programmable ROM
      5. 12.12.5 ROM Devices
      6. 12.12.6 RAM
  20. Chapter 13. Microcontrollers
    1. 13.1 Basic Structure of a Microcontroller
    2. 13.2 Example Microcontrollers
      1. 13.2.1 The ATtiny85 Microcontroller
      2. 13.2.2 The PIC16Cx Microcontrollers
      3. 13.2.3 32-Bit Microcontrollers
      4. 13.2.4 Digital Signal Processing
    3. 13.3 Evaluation/Development Boards
    4. 13.4 Arduino
      1. 13.4.1 A Tour of Arduino
      2. 13.4.2 The Arduino IDE
      3. 13.4.3 Arduino Board Models
      4. 13.4.4 Shields
      5. 13.4.5 The Arduino C Library
      6. 13.4.6 Arduino Example Project
      7. 13.4.7 Taking the Arduino Offboard
    5. 13.5 Interfacing with Microcontrollers
      1. 13.5.1 Switches
      2. 13.5.2 Analog Inputs
      3. 13.5.3 High-Power Digital Outputs
      4. 13.5.4 Sound Interfaces
      5. 13.5.5 Serial Interfaces
      6. 13.5.6 Level Conversion
      7. 13.5.7 LED Display Interfaces
  21. Chapter 14. Motors
    1. 14.1 DC Continuous Motors
    2. 14.2 Speed Control of DC Motors
    3. 14.3 Directional Control of DC Motors
    4. 14.4 RC Servos
    5. 14.5 Stepper Motors
    6. 14.6 Kinds of Stepper Motors
    7. 14.7 Driving Stepper Motors
    8. 14.8 Controlling the Driver with a Translator
    9. 14.9 A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors
  22. Chapter 15. Audio Electronics
    1. 15.1 A Little Lecture on Sound
    2. 15.2 Microphones
    3. 15.3 Microphone Specifications
    4. 15.4 Audio Amplifiers
      1. 15.4.1 Inverting Amplifier
      2. 15.4.2 Noninverting Amplifier
      3. 15.4.3 Digital Amplifiers
      4. 15.4.4 Reducing Hum in Audio Amplifiers
    5. 15.5 Preamplifiers
    6. 15.6 Mixer Circuits
    7. 15.7 A Note on Impedance Matching
    8. 15.8 Speakers
    9. 15.9 Crossover Networks
    10. 15.10 Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers
    11. 15.11 Audible-Signal Devices
    12. 15.12 Miscellaneous Audio Circuits
  23. Chapter 16. Modular Electronics
    1. 16.1 There’s an IC for It
    2. 16.2 Breakout Boards and Modules
      1. 16.2.1 Radio Frequency Modules
      2. 16.2.2 Audio Modules
    3. 16.3 Plug-and-Play Prototyping
    4. 16.4 Open Source Hardware
  24. Appendix A: Power Distribution and Home Wiring
    1. A.1 Power Distribution
    2. A.2 A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity
    3. A.3 Home Wiring
    4. A.4 Electricity in Other Countries
  25. Appendix B: Error Analysis
    1. B.1 Absolute Error, Relative Error, and Percent Error
    2. B.2 Uncertainty Estimates
  26. Appendix C: Useful Facts and Formulas
    1. C.1 Greek Alphabet
    2. C.2 Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes
    3. C.3 Linear Functions (y = mx + b)
    4. C.4 Quadratic Equation (y = ax2 + bx + c)
    5. C.5 Exponents and Logarithms
    6. C.6 Trigonometry
    7. C.7 Complex Numbers
    8. C.8 Differential Calculus
    9. C.9 Integral Calculus
  27. Index