Cover image for Practical Electronics: Components and Techniques

Book Description

How much do you need to know about electronics to create something interesting, or creatively modify something that already exists? If you’d like to build an electronic device, but don’t have much experience with electronics components, this hands-on workbench reference helps you find answers to technical questions quickly. Filling the gap between a beginner’s primer and a formal textbook, Practical Electronics explores aspects of electronic components, techniques, and tools that you would typically learn on the job and from years of experience.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
    1. Who This Book Is For
    2. How This Book Is Organized
    3. Conventions Used in This Book
      1. Safari® Books Online
    4. How to Contact Us
    5. Endorsements
    6. Acknowledgments
  2. 1. Electrons in Motion
    1. Atoms and Electrons
    2. Electric Charge and Current
    3. Current Flow in a Basic Circuit
    4. Ohm’s Law
    5. Power
    6. Resistance
    7. Example: Building a Voltage Divider
    8. Summary
  3. 2. Fasteners and Adhesives
    1. Screws and Bolts
      1. Screw and Bolt Sizes
      2. Screw and Bolt Drive Types
      3. Screw and Bolt Head Styles
      4. Selecting Screws and Bolts
      5. Washers
      6. Self-Tapping Screws
    2. Rivets
    3. Adhesives and Bonding
      1. Glues, Epoxies, and Solvents
      2. Working with Wood and Paper
      3. Working with Plastic
      4. Working with Metal
      5. Special-Purpose Adhesives
    4. Summary
  4. 3. Tools
    1. Screwdrivers
    2. Pliers
    3. Wire Cutters
    4. Wire Strippers
    5. Crimping Tools
    6. Socket and Hex Drivers
    7. Clamps
    8. Vises
    9. Rotary Tools
    10. Grinders
    11. Drills
    12. Drill Bits
    13. Taps and Dies
    14. Small Hand Saws
    15. Miniature Power Saws
    16. Specialty Metalworking Tools
    17. Tweezers
    18. Soldering Tools
    19. Magnifiers and Microscopes
    20. Workspaces
    21. Summary
  5. 4. Tool Techniques
    1. Working with Fasteners
      1. Screwdriver Sizes and Types
      2. Self-Tapping Screws
      3. Hex-Socket-Head Fasteners and Hex Wrenches
      4. Hex-Head Fasteners and Socket Wrenches
      5. Adjustable Wrenches
      6. Wrenches (Spanners)
      7. Rivets
      8. Dealing with Stubborn Fasteners
    2. Soldering and Desoldering
      1. Solder Types
      2. Soldering Technique
      3. Desoldering Wires and Through-Hole Parts
      4. Surface-Mount Soldering
      5. Surface-Mount Desoldering
    3. Cutting
      1. Rod and Bar Stock
      2. Sheet Stock
    4. Drilling
      1. Selecting A Drill Size
      2. Drilling Speed
      3. Drilling Thin Sheet Stock
      4. Lubricants
      5. Punches and Pilot Holes
      6. Using a Step Drill
      7. Common Drilling Problems
      8. Taps and Dies
    5. Modification Cutting
      1. Jeweler’s Saw
      2. Rotary Tool
    6. Summary
  6. 5. Power Sources
    1. Batteries
      1. Battery Packages
      2. Primary Batteries
      3. Secondary Batteries
      4. Miniature Button/Coin Batteries
      5. Battery Storage Considerations
      6. Using Batteries
      7. Battery Circuits
      8. Selecting Batteries
    2. Power Supply Technology
      1. Wall Plug-in DC Power Supplies
      2. Bench DC Power Supplies
      3. Modular and Internal DC Power Supplies
    3. Photovoltaic Power Sources
    4. Fuses and Circuit Breakers
      1. Fuses
      2. Circuit Breakers
    5. Summary
  7. 6. Switches
    1. One Switch, Multiple Circuits
    2. Switch Types
      1. Toggle
      2. Rocker
      3. Slide
      4. Rotary
      5. Pushbutton
      6. Snap-Action
    3. Slide and Rotary Switch Circuits
    4. Switch Selection Criteria
    5. Switch Caveats
    6. Summary
  8. 7. Connectors and Wiring
    1. Wire and Cable
      1. Wire Gauges
      2. Insulation
      3. Twisted Pairs
      4. Shielding
      5. Multi-Conductor Cables
      6. Stripping Wire Insulation
    2. Connectors
      1. Connector Termination
      2. Connector Types
    3. Assembling Connectors
      1. Soldered Terminals
      2. Crimped Terminals
      3. Connector Backshells
      4. IDC Connectors
      5. Ethernet Connectors
    4. Summary
  9. 8. Passive Components
    1. Tolerance
    2. Voltage, Power, and Temperature
    3. Packages
    4. Resistors
      1. Physical Forms
      2. Fixed Resistors
      3. Variable Resistors
      4. Special-Purpose Resistors
      5. Resistor Markings
    5. Capacitors
      1. Capacitance Values
      2. Capacitor Types
      3. Variable Capacitors
      4. Surface-Mount Capacitors
    6. Chokes, Coils, and Transformers
      1. Chokes
      2. Coils
      3. Variable Inductors
      4. Transformers
      5. Packages
    7. Summary
  10. 9. Active Components
    1. How to Read a Datasheet
      1. Datasheet Organization
      2. Datasheet Walk-Through
      3. Collecting Datasheets
    2. Electrostatic Discharge
    3. Packaging Overview
      1. Through-Hole Parts
      2. Surface-Mount Parts
      3. Using Different Package Types
    4. Diodes and Rectifiers
      1. Small-Signal Diodes
      2. Rectifiers
      3. Light-Emitting Diodes
      4. Zener Diodes
      5. Exotic Diodes
      6. Diode/Rectifier Axial Package Types
      7. Diode/Rectifier Surface-Mount Packages
      8. LED Package Types
    5. Transistors
      1. Small-Signal Transistors
      2. Power Transistors
      3. Field-Effect Transistors
      4. Conventional Transistor Package Types
      5. Surface-Mount Transistor Package Types
    6. SCR and TRIAC Devices
      1. Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
      2. TRIACs
    7. Heatsinks
    8. Integrated Circuits
      1. Conventional IC Package Types
      2. Surface-Mount IC Package Types
      3. High-Current and Voltage Regulation ICs
    9. Summary
  11. 10. Relays
    1. Relay Background
      1. Armature Relays
      2. Reed Relays
      3. Contactor
    2. Relay Packages
      1. PCB Relays
      2. Lug-Terminal Relays
      3. Socketed Relays
    3. Selecting a Relay
    4. Relay Reliability Issues
      1. Contact Arcing
      2. Coil Overheating
      3. Relay Bounce
    5. Relay Applications
      1. Controlling Relays with Low-Voltage Logic
      2. Signal Switching
      3. Power Switching
      4. Relay Logic
    6. Summary
  12. 11. Logic
    1. Logic Basics
    2. Origin of Logic ICs
    3. Logic Families
    4. Logic Building Blocks: 4000 and 7400 ICs
      1. Closing the TTL and CMOS gap
      2. 4000 Series CMOS Logic Devices
      3. 7400 Series TTL Logic Devices
      4. CMOS and TTL Applications
    5. Programmable Logic Devices
    6. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
      1. Programming a Microcontroller
      2. Types of Microcontrollers
      3. Selecting a Microcontroller
    7. Working with Logic Components
      1. Probing and Measuring
      2. Tips, Hints, and Cautions
      3. Electrostatic Discharge Control
    8. Summary
  13. 12. Discrete Control Interfaces
    1. The Discrete Interface
      1. Discrete Interface Applications
      2. Hacking a Discrete Interface
    2. Discrete Inputs
      1. Using a Pull-Up or a Pull-Down Resistor
      2. Using Active Input Buffering
      3. Using Relays with Inputs
      4. Optical Isolators
    3. Discrete Outputs
      1. Current Sinking and Sourcing
      2. Buffering Discrete Outputs
      3. Simple One-Transistor Buffer
    4. Logic-Level Translation
      1. The BSS138 FET
      2. The TXB0108
      3. The NTB0101
    5. Components
    6. Summary
  14. 13. Analog Interfaces
    1. Interfacing with an Analog World
      1. From Analog to Digital and Back Again
      2. Analog-to-Digital Converters
      3. Digital-to-Analog Converters
    2. Hacking Analog Signals
    3. Summary
  15. 14. Data Communication Interfaces
    1. Basic Digital Communications Concepts
      1. Serial and Parallel
      2. Synchronous and Asynchronous
    2. SPI and I2C
      1. SPI
      2. I2C
      3. A Brief Survey of SPI and I2C Peripheral Devices
    3. RS-232
      1. RS-232 Signals
      2. DTE and DCE
      3. Handshaking
      4. RS-232 Components
    4. RS-485
      1. RS-485 Signals
      2. Line Drivers and Receivers
      3. RS-485 Multi-Drop
      4. RS-485 Components
    5. RS-232 vs. RS-485
    6. USB
      1. USB Terminology
      2. USB Connections
      3. USB Classes
      4. USB Data Rates
      5. USB Hubs
      6. Device Configuration
      7. USB Endpoints and Pipes
      8. Device Control
      9. USB Interface Components
      10. USB Hacking
    7. Ethernet Network Communications
      1. Ethernet Basics
      2. Ethernet ICs, Modules, and USB Convertors
    8. Wireless Communications
      1. Bandwidth and Modulation
      2. The ISM Radio Bands
      3. 2.45 GHz Short-Range
      4. 802.11
      5. Bluetooth®
      6. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
      7. Zigbee
    9. Other Data Communications Methods
    10. Summary
  16. 15. Printed Circuit Boards
    1. PCB History
    2. PCB Basics
      1. Pads, Vias, and Traces
      2. Surface-Mount Components
      3. Fabrication
    3. PCB Layout
      1. Determine Dimensions
      2. Arrange Parts
      3. Place Components
      4. Route Traces on the Solder Side
      5. Route Traces on the Component Side
      6. Create the Silkscreen
      7. Generate Gerber Files
    4. Fabricating a PCB
    5. PCB Guidelines
      1. Layout Grid
      2. Grid Spacing
      3. Location Reference
      4. Trace Width for Signals
      5. Trace Width for Power
      6. Trace Separation
      7. Via Size
      8. Via Separation
      9. Pad Size
      10. Sharp Corners
      11. Silkscreen
    6. Summary
  17. 16. Packaging
    1. The Importance of Packaging
    2. Types of Packaging
      1. Plastic
      2. Metal
    3. Stock Enclosures
      1. Plastic Enclosures
      2. Cast Aluminum Enclosures
      3. Extruded Aluminum Enclosures
      4. Sheet Metal Enclosures
    4. Building or Recycling Enclosures
      1. Building Plastic and Wood Enclosures
      2. Unconventional Enclosures
      3. Repurposing Existing Enclosures
    5. Designing Packaging for Electronics
      1. Device Size and Weight
      2. Environmental Considerations
      3. Thermal Considerations
    6. Sources
    7. Summary
  18. 17. Test Equipment
    1. Basic Test Equipment
      1. Digital Multimeters
      2. Using a DMM
      3. Oscilloscopes
      4. How an Oscilloscope Works
      5. Using an Oscilloscope
    2. Advanced Test Equipment
      1. Pulse and Signal Generators
      2. Logic Analyzers
    3. Buying Used and Surplus Equipment
    4. Summary
  19. A. Essential Electronics and AC Circuits
    1. Units of Measurement
    2. Voltage, Current, and Power
      1. Voltage
      2. Current
      3. Power
    3. Resistance
      1. Conductivity and Resistance
      2. Ohm’s Law
      3. Series Resistance Networks
      4. Parallel Resistance Networks
    4. Equivalent Circuits
      1. Voltage and Current Sources
      2. Lumped-Parameter Elements
      3. Thévenin’s Theorem
      4. Equivalent Circuit Applications
    5. AC Concepts
      1. Waveforms
      2. Other Waveforms
      3. AC Frequency, Voltage, and Power
      4. AC Phase
    6. Capacitance, Inductance, Reactance, and Impedance
      1. Capacitors
      2. Inductors
      3. Impedance and Reactance
    7. Solid-State Concepts
      1. The P-N Junction
      2. Diodes and Rectifiers
      3. Special-Purpose Diodes
      4. Transistors
    8. Operational Amplifiers
      1. Basic Op Amp Circuits
      2. Specialized Op Amps
    9. Noise
      1. Noise Sources
      2. AC Line Noise
      3. AC Ripple
      4. Spurious Noise
      5. RF Noise and RFI
    10. Recommended Reading and Further Exploration
  20. B. Schematics
    1. Wires and Current Paths
    2. Common Schematic Symbols
    3. Schematic Capture and EDA Tools
      1. Open Source and Commercial Tools for Schematic Capture
      2. Other Open Source Schematic Capture Tools
  21. C. Bibliography
  22. D. Resources
    1. Software
      1. Open Source Schematic Capture Tools
      2. CAE Software Tools
      3. PCB Layout Tools
    2. Hardware, Components, and Tools
      1. Electronic Component Manufacturers
      2. Electronics Distributors (USA)
      3. Discount and Surplus Electronics
      4. Mechanical Parts and Hardware (Screws, Nuts, Bolts)
      5. Microcontrollers, Kits, Parts, and Supplies
      6. Electronic Enclosures and Chassis
      7. Tools
      8. Test Equipment
    3. Printed Circuit Board Supplies and Fabricators
      1. Prototype and Fast-Turnaround Fabricators
      2. PCB Kit Sources
    4. eBay
    5. Other Sources
    6. Datasheets, Application Notes, and Manuals
      1. Datasheets
      2. Application Notes
      3. Manuals
  23. E. Components Lists
    1. Controllers
      1. 8-Bit Microcontrollers
      2. 16-Bit Microcontrollers
      3. 32-Bit Microcontrollers
    2. Memory
      1. Serial Interface EEPROM ICs
      2. Serial Interface SRAM ICs
      3. Serial Interface Flash ICs
    3. Logic
      1. 4000 Series CMOS Logic
      2. 7400 Series TTL Logic
    4. Interface Components
      1. Serial Interface ADC Devices
      2. Serial Interface DAC Devices
      3. Serial Interface Discrete I/O Expansion ICs
      4. Relay Drivers
      5. SPI Display Modules
      6. Various SPI/I2C Peripheral Devices
    5. Translation
      1. Interface-Level Translators
    6. Data Communications Components
      1. RS-232 Interface ICs
      2. RS-232 UART ICs
      3. RS-485 Transceiver ICs
      4. USB Interface ICs
      5. Ethernet Interface ICs
      6. 802.11b/g Ethernet Interface Modules
      7. Bluetooth Modules
      8. Bluetooth Low-Energy Components
      9. Bluetooth Low-Energy Modules
      10. ZigBee Modules
  24. Glossary
  25. Index