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Practical Augmented Reality: A Guide to the Technologies, Applications, and Human Factors for AR and VR

Book Description

The most comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the technologies, applications and human factors considerations of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) systems and wearable computing devices.

Practical Augmented Reality is ideal for practitioners and students concerned with any application, from gaming to medicine. It brings together comprehensive coverage of both theory and practice, emphasizing leading-edge displays, sensors, and DIY tools that are already available commercially or will be soon. Beginning with a Foreword by NASA research scientist Victor Luo, this guide begins by explaining the mechanics of human sight, hearing and touch, showing how these perceptual mechanisms (and their performance ranges) directly dictate the design and use of wearable displays, 3-D audio systems, and tactile/force feedback devices.

Steve Aukstakalnis presents revealing case studies of real-world applications from gaming, entertainment, science, engineering, aeronautics and aerospace, defense, medicine, telerobotics, architecture, law enforcement, and geophysics. Readers will find clear, easy-to-understand explanations, photos, and illustrations of devices including the Atheer AiR, HTC Vive, DAQRI Smart Helmet, Oculus (Facebook) CV1, Sony PlayStation VR, Vuzix M300, Google Glass, and many more. Functional diagrams and photographs clearly explain how these devices operate, and link directly to relevant theoretical and practical content.

Practical Augmented Reality thoroughly considers the human factors of these systems, including sensory and motor physiology constraints, monocular and binocular depth cues, elements contributing to visually-induced motion sickness and nausea, and vergence–accommodation conflicts. It concludes by assessing both the legal and societal implications of new and emerging AR, VR, and wearable technologies as well as provides a look next generation systems.

Table of Contents

  1. About This E-Book
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Praise for Practical Augmented Reality
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Contents
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
    1. Who Should Read This Book
    2. How This Book Is Organized
    3. Conventions Used in This Book
    4. Companion Website
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. About the Author
  11. Part I: Introduction to Augmented and Virtual Reality
    1. Chapter 1. Computer-Generated Worlds
      1. What Is Augmented Reality?
        1. Head-Up Displays
        2. Helmet-Mounted Sights and Displays
        3. Smart Glasses and Augmenting Displays
      2. What Is Virtual Reality?
      3. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2. Understanding Virtual Space
      1. Defining Visual Space and Content
        1. Visual and Object Space
        2. Content
      2. Defining Position and Orientation in Three Dimensions
        1. Defining Position
        2. Defining Orientation and Rotation
      3. Navigation
      4. Conclusion
  12. Part II: Understanding the Human Senses and Their Relationship to Output/Input Devices
    1. Chapter 3. The Mechanics of Sight
      1. The Visual Pathway
        1. Entering the Eye
        2. Image Formation and Detection
      2. Spatial Vision and Depth Cues
        1. Extraretinal Cues
        2. Binocular Cues
        3. Monocular Cues
      3. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 4. Component Technologies of Head-Mounted Displays
      1. Display Fundamentals
        1. Ocularity
        2. Display Types
        3. Imaging and Display Technologies
      2. Related Terminology and Concepts
        1. About Light
        2. Display Properties and Characteristics
      3. Optical Architectures
        1. Basic Concepts
      4. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 5. Augmenting Displays
      1. Binocular Augmenting Displays
        1. Epson Moverio BT-300
        2. Lumus DK-50 Development Kit
        3. AtheerAiR (Augmented interactive Reality) Glasses
        4. DAQRI Smart Helmet
        5. Osterhout Design Group R-7 Smartglasses
        6. NVIS nVisor ST50
        7. Microsoft HoloLens
        8. Sony SmartEyeglass SED-E1
      2. Monocular Augmenting Displays
        1. Vuzix M100 Smart Glasses
        2. Vuzix M300 Smart Glasses
        3. Google Glass
      3. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 6. Fully Immersive Displays
      1. PC-Console Driven Displays
        1. Oculus Rift CV1
        2. HTC Vive
        3. Sony PlayStation VR
        4. OSVR–Open-Source VR Development Kit
      2. Smartphone-Based Displays
        1. Google Cardboard
        2. Samsung GearVR
      3. CAVES and Walls
      4. Hemispheres and Domes
      5. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 7. The Mechanics of Hearing
      1. Defining Sound
        1. Echoes and Reverberation
        2. Dynamic Range of Hearing
      2. The Auditory Pathway
        1. The Outer Ear
        2. The Middle Ear
        3. The Inner Ear
        4. From Monaural to Binaural
      3. Sound Cues and 3D Localization
        1. Sound Cues
      4. The Vestibular System
      5. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 8. Audio Displays
      1. Conventional Audio
        1. Monaural Sound
        2. Stereo Sound
        3. Surround Sound
        4. Binaural Recording
      2. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 9. The Mechanics of Feeling
      1. The Science of Feeling
      2. Anatomy and Composition of the Skin
        1. Skin Layers
        2. Tactile Perception
        3. Kinesthetic Sensing
      3. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 10. Tactile and Force Feedback Devices
      1. Haptic Illusions
      2. Tactile Feedback Devices
        1. Gloveone
        2. TeslaSuit
        3. Haptic Audio and Tactile Sound Transducers
        4. The SubPac
        5. The Woojer
        6. Clark Synthesis Full Contact Audio Tactile Sound Transducers
      3. Force Feedback Devices
        1. CyberGlove Systems CyberGrasp
        2. Geomagic Touch X Haptic Device
      4. Conclusion
    9. Chapter 11. Sensors for Tracking Position, Orientation, and Motion
      1. Introduction to Sensor Technologies
      2. Optical Trackers
        1. Multicamera Optical Tracking
        2. Optical Sensors
        3. Microsoft Kinect
      3. Beacon Trackers
      4. Electromagnetic Trackers
      5. Inertial Sensors
        1. How Inertial Sensors Function
        2. Integration Example
      6. Acoustic Sensors
      7. Conclusion
    10. Chapter 12. Devices to Enable Navigation and Interaction
      1. 2D Versus 3D Interaction and Navigation
      2. The Importance of a Manual Interface
      3. Hand and Gesture Tracking
        1. Gloves
        2. Dual Wand/Paired Controllers
      4. Whole Body Tracking
      5. Gaming and Entertainment Interfaces
      6. Navigating with Your Mind
      7. Conclusion
  13. Part III: Applications of Augmented and Virtual Reality
    1. Chapter 13. Gaming and Entertainment
      1. Virtual Reality and the Arts
      2. Gaming
        1. Single-User First-Person Games
        2. Multiplayer First-Person Games
        3. Massively Multiplayer First-Person Games
        4. Location-Based Entertainment
      3. Immersive Video/Cinematic Virtual Reality
      4. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 14. Architecture and Construction
      1. Artificial Spaces
      2. Architectural Design: Mangan Group Architects
      3. Construction Management
        1. Mortenson Construction
        2. Nabholz Construction
      4. Real Estate Sales Applications
      5. Architectural Acoustics
      6. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 15. Science and Engineering
      1. Simulate and Innovate
      2. Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering
        1. British Royal Navy Type 26 Global Combat Ship
        2. British Royal Navy Astute Class Nuclear Submarines
      3. Automotive Engineering
        1. Ford Motor Company
      4. Aerospace Engineering
        1. Lockheed Martin Corporation
      5. Nuclear Engineering and Manufacturing
      6. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 16. Health and Medicine
      1. Advancing the Field of Medicine
      2. Training Applications
        1. HelpMeSee Cataract Surgery Simulator
        2. Simodont Dental Trainer
      3. Treatment Applications
        1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
        2. Bravemind (Virtual Iraq and Afghanistan)
        3. Phobias
        4. Vascular Imaging
        5. Healthcare Informatics
      4. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 17. Aerospace and Defense
      1. Flight Simulation and Training
        1. Fused Reality
      2. Mission Planning and Rehearsal
        1. Dismounted Soldier Training System
        2. PARASIM Virtual Reality Parachute Simulator
      3. Dismounted Soldier Situational Awareness
        1. Nett Warrior
      4. Advanced Cockpit Avionics
        1. Military
        2. Commercial Aviation
        3. Civilian
      5. Space Operations
        1. Project Sidekick
      6. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 18. Education
      1. Tangible Skills Education
        1. VRTEX 360 Welding Simulator
        2. SimSpray Spray Paint Training System
      2. Theory, Knowledge Acquisition, and Concept Formation
        1. Architectural Education
        2. Google Expeditions Pioneer Program
      3. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 19. Information Control and Big Data Visualization
      1. What Is Big Data?
      2. Big Data Analytics and Human Vision
        1. Visualization of Longitudinal Study Data
        2. Visualization of Multidisciplinary Mining Data
      3. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 20. Telerobotics and Telepresence
      1. Defining Telerobotics and Telepresence
      2. Space Applications and Robonaut
        1. Robotic Surgery
      3. Undersea Applications
      4. Terrestrial and Airborne Applications
        1. DORA (Dexterous Observational Roving Automaton)
        2. Transporter3D DIY Telepresence System
      5. Conclusion
  14. Part IV: Human Factors, Legal, and Social Considerations
    1. Chapter 21. Human Factors Considerations
      1. What Are Human Factors?
      2. Physical Side Effects
        1. Comparing Real and Virtual Worlds
        2. Visually Induced Motion Sickness
      3. Visual Side Effects
        1. Vergence—Accommodation Conflicts
        2. Potential Impact
      4. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 22. Legal and Social Considerations
      1. Legal Considerations
        1. Potential Product Liability
        2. Potential Courtroom Applications and Implications
        3. Virtual Worlds Law
      2. Moral and Ethical Considerations
        1. Violent First-Person Games
        2. A Free Speech Issue?
      3. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 23. The Future
      1. A Wide-Angle View of Things to Come
      2. Short-Term Outlook
      3. Long-Term Outlook
        1. The Shift to Augmented Reality Displays
        2. Tactile and Force Feedback Devices
        3. 3D Sound
        4. Software
      4. Conclusion
  15. Appendix A. Bibliography
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
  16. Appendix B. Resources
    1. Product Manufacturers
      1. Augmenting Head-Mounted Displays
      2. Fully Immersive Head-Mounted Displays
      3. Mobile Device-Based Headsets
      4. Caves, Coves, and Cubes
      5. Dome Displays
      6. AR Software for Business and Enterprise
      7. Binaural Recording Systems
      8. Acoustic Modeling Software
      9. Tactile and Force Feedback Devices
      10. Sensors for Tracking Position and Orientation
      11. Stereo 360 Cameras
    2. DIY Resources
      1. FOV2GO Stereoscopic Viewer
      2. Google Cardboard
      3. PC-Driven Stereoscopic Displays
      4. Misc Software and Utilities
      5. Game Conversion Software
      6. Game Streaming Utilities
      7. Software Ecosystems
      8. Prescription and Protective Lenses for VR Headsets
      9. Hygienic VR Headset Covers
      10. Audio Resources
    3. Trademark and Copyright Information
  17. Index