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Power Ultrasonics

Book Description

This book reviews the technology involved in power ultrasonics and considers state-of-the-art applications across a wide range of industries.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of contributors
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. 1. Introduction to power ultrasonics
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 The field of ultrasonics
    4. 1.3 Power ultrasonics
    5. 1.4 Historical notes
    6. 1.5 Coverage of this book
  8. Part One: Fundamentals
    1. 2. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in fluids: nonlinear propagation and effects
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 2.1 Introduction
      4. 2.2 Nonlinear phenomena
      5. 2.3 Nonlinear interactions within the acoustic mode
      6. 2.4 Nonlinear interactions between the acoustic and nonacoustic modes
      7. 2.5 Conclusion
    2. 3. Acoustic cavitation: bubble dynamics in high-power ultrasonic fields
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 3.1 Introduction
      4. 3.2 Cavitation thresholds
      5. 3.3 Single-bubble dynamics
      6. 3.4 Bubble ensemble dynamics
      7. 3.5 Acoustic cavitation noise
      8. 3.6 Sonoluminescence
      9. 3.7 Conclusions
    3. 4. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in solids: nonlinear dynamics and effects
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Fundamental nonlinear equations
      4. 4.3 Nonlinear effects in progressive and stationary waves
      5. 4.4 Conclusions
    4. 5. Piezoelectric ceramic materials for power ultrasonic transducers
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Fundamentals of ferro-piezoelectric ceramics
      4. 5.3 Characterization methods of ceramics from piezoelectric resonances
      5. 5.4 Applications of the iterative automatic method in the characterization of ceramics
      6. 5.5 Lead-free piezoceramics for environmental protection
      7. 5.6 Future trends
    5. 6. Power ultrasonic transducers: principles and design
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Ultrasonic vibrations: mechanical oscillator
      4. 6.3 Ultrasonic vibrations: longitudinal vibrations
      5. 6.4 Piezoelectric materials
      6. 6.5 The power ultrasonic transducer
      7. 6.6 Transducer characterization and control
      8. 6.7 Modeling transducer behavior
      9. 6.8 Transducer development
      10. 6.9 Future trends
      11. 6.10 Sources of further information and advice
    6. 7. Power ultrasonic transducers with vibrating plate radiators
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 7.1 Introduction
      4. 7.2 Structure of transducers: basic design
      5. 7.3 Finite element modeling
      6. 7.4 Controlling nonlinear vibration behavior
      7. 7.5 Fatigue limitations of transducers
      8. 7.6 Characteristics of the different types of plate transducers
      9. 7.7 Evaluating transducers in power operation: electrical, vibrational, acoustic, and thermal characteristics
      10. 7.8 Conclusions and future trends
    7. 8. Measurement techniques in power ultrasonics
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Characterizing the source
      4. 8.3 Characterizing the generated ultrasound field
      5. 8.4 Characterizing the resultant acoustic cavitation
      6. 8.5 Case studies: characterizing two cavitating systems
      7. 8.6 Conclusions
    8. 9. Modeling of power ultrasonic transducers
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Transduction and elastic wave propagation in solids
      4. 9.3 Acoustic waves in fluids and fluid–structure coupling
      5. 9.4 The unbounded problem: far-field radiation of acoustic waves
    9. 10. Modeling energy losses in power ultrasound transducers
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Modeling linear and nonlinear behavior
      4. 10.3 Experimental validation and simulation testing
      5. 10.4 Assessing model performance
      6. 10.5 Conclusions
  9. Part Two: Welding, metal forming, and machining applications
    1. 11. Ultrasonic welding of metals
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Principles of ultrasonic metal welding
      4. 11.3 Ultrasonic welding equipment
      5. 11.4 Mechanics and metallurgy of the ultrasonic weld
      6. 11.5 Applications of ultrasonic welding
      7. 11.6 Process advantages and disadvantages
      8. 11.7 Future trends
      9. 11.8 Sources of further information and advice
    2. 12. Ultrasonic welding of plastics and polymeric composites
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Theory of the ultrasonic welding process
      4. 12.3 Description of plunge and continuous welding processes
      5. 12.4 Ultrasonic welding equipment
      6. 12.5 Joint and part design
      7. 12.6 Material weldability
    3. 13. Power ultrasonics for additive manufacturing and consolidating of materials
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Ultrasonic additive manufacturing
      4. 13.3 Applications of ultrasonic additive manufacturing
      5. 13.4 Future trends
      6. 13.5 Conclusion
    4. 14. Ultrasonic metal forming: materials
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Microstructure effects
      4. 14.3 Macroscopic behavior
      5. 14.4 Surface friction
      6. 14.5 Future trends
      7. 14.6 Sources of further information and advice
    5. 15. Ultrasonic metal forming: processing
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Wire and tube drawing
      4. 15.3 Deep drawing and bending
      5. 15.4 Forging and extrusion
      6. 15.5 Ultrasonic rolling
      7. 15.6 Other forming processes
      8. 15.7 Future trends
      9. 15.8 Sources of further information and advice
    6. 16. Using power ultrasonics in machine tools
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Historical and technical review
      4. 16.3 Ultrasonic machine tool processes: ultrasonic turning
      5. 16.4 Ultrasonic drilling and milling
      6. 16.5 Ultrasonic grinding
      7. 16.6 Allied ultrasonic machining processes
      8. 16.7 Ultrasonic machine tools for production
      9. 16.8 Future trends
      10. 16.9 Sources of further information and advice
  10. Part Three: Engineering and medical applications
    1. 17. Ultrasonic motors
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Traveling-wave ultrasonic motors
      4. 17.3 Hybrid transducer ultrasonic motors
      5. 17.4 Performance of ultrasonic motors and driver circuits
      6. 17.5 Conclusion and future trends
    2. 18. Power ultrasound for the production of nanomaterials
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Ultrasound synthesis of metallic nanoparticles
      4. 18.3 Ultrasound synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles
      5. 18.4 Ultrasound synthesis of chalcogenide nanoparticles
      6. 18.5 Ultrasound synthesis of metal halide nanoparticles
      7. 18.6 Using ultrasonic waves in the synthesis of graphene, graphene oxide, and other nanomaterials
      8. 18.7 The use of ultrasound for the deposition of nanoparticles on substrates
      9. 18.8 Ultrasound synthesis of micro- and nanospheres
      10. 18.9 Conclusions and future trends
    3. 19. Ultrasonic cleaning and washing of surfaces
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 The use of ultrasound in cleaning
      4. 19.3 Ultrasonic cleaning technology
      5. 19.4 Mechanism of ultrasonic cleaning
      6. 19.5 Ultrasonic cleaning process variables
      7. 19.6 The role of chemical additives and temperature
      8. 19.7 Achieving optimum ultrasonic cleaning performance
      9. 19.8 Evaluating ultrasonic cleaning performance
      10. 19.9 Advances in technology
      11. 19.10 Damage mechanisms
      12. 19.11 Megasonics
      13. 19.12 Future trends
      14. 19.13 Sources of further information and advice
      15. Appendix ultrasonic washing of textiles (contributed by Juan A. Gallego-Juárez)
    4. 20. Ultrasonic degassing of liquids
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 20.1 Introduction
      4. 20.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic degassing
      5. 20.3 Mechanism of ultrasonic degassing in melts
      6. 20.4 Main process parameters in ultrasonic degassing
      7. 20.5 Industrial implementation of ultrasonic degassing
    5. 21. Ultrasonic surgical devices and procedures
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 21.1 Introduction
      4. 21.2 Surgical device requirements and goals
      5. 21.3 General device design
      6. 21.4 Mechanisms of action
      7. 21.5 Device types
      8. 21.6 Medical device regulations
      9. 21.7 Future trends
      10. 21.8 Sources of further information and advice
    6. 22. High-intensity focused ultrasound for medical therapy
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Ultrasound interaction with tissue
      4. 22.3 Therapy devices
      5. 22.4 Imaging guidance
      6. 22.5 Clinical experience
      7. 22.6 Future trends
    7. 23. Ultrasonic cutting for surgical applications
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Introduction: the origins of ultrasonic cutting for surgical devices
      3. 23.2 Developments in ultrasound for soft-tissue dissection
      4. 23.3 Developments in ultrasound for bone cutting and other surgical applications
      5. 23.4 Cutting mechanisms in soft tissue
      6. 23.5 Ultrasonic dissection of mineralized tissue
      7. 23.6 Factors affecting device performance
      8. 23.7 Device characterization
      9. 23.8 Orthopedic, orthodontic, and maxillofacial procedures
      10. 23.9 Current and future trends
  11. Part Four: Food technology and pharmaceutical applications
    1. 24. Design and scale-up of sonochemical reactors for food processing and other applications
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Modeling of cavitational reactors
      4. 24.3 Understanding cavitational activity
      5. 24.4 Types of reactors
      6. 24.5 Developments in reactor design
      7. 24.6 Selecting operating parameters
      8. 24.7 Reactor choice, scale-up, and optimization
      9. 24.8 Future trends
      10. 24.9 Conclusions
    2. 25. Ultrasonic mixing, homogenization, and emulsification in food processing and other applications
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Cavitation and acoustic streaming
      4. 25.3 Mixing
      5. 25.4 Particle and aggregate dispersion and disruption
      6. 25.5 Solid and liquid dissolution
      7. 25.6 Homogenization
      8. 25.7 Emulsification
      9. 25.8 Conclusions and future trends
    3. 26. Ultrasonic defoaming and debubbling in food processing and other applications
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 26.1 Introduction
      4. 26.2 Foams
      5. 26.3 Conventional methods for foam control
      6. 26.4 Ultrasonic defoaming
      7. 26.5 Mechanisms of ultrasonic defoaming
      8. 26.6 Ultrasonic defoamers
      9. 26.7 Using ultrasound to remove bubbles in coating layers
      10. 26.8 Conclusions and future trends
    4. 27. Power ultrasonics for food processing
      1. Abstract
      2. 27.1 Introduction
      3. 27.2 Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE)
      4. 27.3 Emulsification
      5. 27.4 Viscosity modification
      6. 27.5 Processing dairy proteins
      7. 27.6 Sonocrystallization
      8. 27.7 Fat separation
      9. 27.8 Other applications: sterilization, pasteurization, drying, brining, and marinating
      10. 27.9 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) for ultrasound in food-processing operations
      11. 27.10 Conclusions and future trends
    5. 28. Crystallization and freezing processes assisted by power ultrasound
      1. Abstract
      2. 28.1 Introduction
      3. 28.2 Fundamentals of crystallization
      4. 28.3 Impact of ultrasound on solute crystallization
      5. 28.4 Effect of ultrasound on ice crystallization (freezing)
      6. 28.5 Solute nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      7. 28.6 Crystal growth and breakage mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      8. 28.7 Ice nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
      9. 28.8 Future trends
    6. 29. Ultrasonic drying for food preservation
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 29.1 Introduction
      4. 29.2 Ultrasonic mechanisms involved in transport phenomena
      5. 29.3 Ultrasonic devices for drying
      6. 29.4 Testing the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
      7. 29.5 Product properties affecting the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
      8. 29.6 Structural changes caused by ultrasonic drying
      9. 29.7 Conclusions and future trends
    7. 30. The use of ultrasonic atomization for encapsulation and other processes in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing
      1. Abstract
      2. 30.1 Introduction
      3. 30.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic atomization
      4. 30.3 Ultrasonic atomizer design
      5. 30.4 Measuring droplet size and distribution
      6. 30.5 The effect of different operating parameters on droplet size
      7. 30.6 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: encapsulation
      8. 30.7 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: food hygiene
      9. 30.8 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: aerosols for drug delivery
      10. 30.9 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: encapsulation for drug delivery
      11. 30.10 Future trends
      12. 30.11 Conclusion
  12. Part Five: Environmental and other applications
    1. 31. The use of power ultrasound for water treatment
      1. Abstract
      2. 31.1 Introduction
      3. 31.2 Ultrasonic cavitation and advanced oxidative processes (AOPs)
      4. 31.3 Sonochemical devices and experimentation
      5. 31.4 Characteristics of sonochemical elimination
      6. 31.5 Kinetic and sonochemical yields
      7. 31.6 Sonochemical treatment parameters
      8. 31.7 Ultrasound in hybrid processes
      9. 31.8 Conclusion
    2. 32. The use of power ultrasound for wastewater and biomass treatment
      1. Abstract
      2. 32.1 Introduction
      3. 32.2 Impact of ultrasound on biological suspensions
      4. 32.3 Anaerobic digestion processes: full-scale application
      5. 32.4 Aerobic biological processes: full-scale application
      6. 32.5 Development and design of a full-scale ultrasound reactor
      7. 32.6 Future trends
    3. 33. The use of power ultrasound for organic synthesis in green chemistry
      1. Abstract
      2. 33.1 Introduction
      3. 33.2 The green sonochemical approach for organic synthesis
      4. 33.3 Solvent-free sonochemical protocols
      5. 33.4 Heterogeneous catalysis in organic solvents and ionic liquids
      6. 33.5 Heterocycle synthesis
      7. 33.6 Heterocycle functionalization
      8. 33.7 Cycloaddition reactions
      9. 33.8 Organometallic reactions
      10. 33.9 Multicomponent reactions
      11. 33.10 Conclusions and future trends
    4. 34. Ultrasonic agglomeration and preconditioning of aerosol particles for environmental and other applications
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 34.1 Introduction
      4. 34.2 The development of practical applications of aerosol agglomeration
      5. 34.3 Linear acoustic effects that determine the agglomeration process
      6. 34.4 Nonlinear acoustic effects
      7. 34.5 Motion of aerosol particles in an acoustic field: vibration
      8. 34.6 Translational motion of aerosol particles
      9. 34.7 Interactions between aerosol particles: orthokinetic effect (OE)
      10. 34.8 Hydrodynamic mechanisms of particle interaction
      11. 34.9 Mutual radiation pressure effect (MRPE)
      12. 34.10 Acoustic wake effect (AWE)
      13. 34.11 Modeling of acoustic agglomeration of aerosol particles
      14. 34.12 Laboratory and pilot scale plants for industrial and environmental applications
      15. 34.13 Conclusions and future trends
    5. 35. The use of power ultrasound in mining
      1. Abstract
      2. 35.1 Introduction
      3. 35.2 The mining process
      4. 35.3 Measuring the stress state in a rock mass
      5. 35.4 Application of power ultrasound in mineral grinding
      6. 35.5 Development of an ultrasonic-assisted flotation process for increasing the concentration of mined minerals
      7. 35.6 Conclusions and future trends
    6. 36. The use of power ultrasound in biofuel production, bioremediation, and other applications
      1. Abstract
      2. 36.1 Introduction
      3. 36.2 The chemical effects of ultrasound
      4. 36.3 The molecular effects of ultrasound
      5. 36.4 Sonochemical reactors
      6. 36.5 Biofuel production
      7. 36.6 Ultrasound-assisted bioremediation
      8. 36.7 Biosensors
      9. 36.8 Biosludge processing
      10. 36.9 Conclusions and future trends
  13. Index