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Power System Operation and Control

Book Description

Power System Operation and Control is a comprehensive text designed for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in electrical engineering. This book aims to meet the requirements of electrical engineering students of universities all over India. This text is written in a simple and easy-to-understand manner and is valuable both as a textbook as well as a reference book for engineering students and practicing engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Also by the same author
  6. Dedication
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1. Economic Aspects
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Load Curve
    3. 1.3 Load–Duration Curve
    4. 1.4 Integrated Load–Duration Curve
      1. 1.4.1 Uses of Integrated Load–Duration Curve
    5. 1.5 Definition of Terms and Factors
      1. 1.5.1 Connected Load
      2. 1.5.2 Maximum Demand
      3. 1.5.3 Demand Factor
      4. 1.5.4 Average Load
      5. 1.5.5 Load Factor
      6. 1.5.6 Diversity Factor
      7. 1.5.7 Plant Capacity
      8. 1.5.8 Plant Capacity Factor
      9. 1.5.9 Utilization Factor (or Plant-Use Factor)
      10. 1.5.10 Firm Power
      11. 1.5.11 Prime Power
      12. 1.5.12 Dump Power
      13. 1.5.13 Spill Power
      14. 1.5.14 Cold Reserve
      15. 1.5.15 Hot Reserve
      16. 1.5.16 Spinning Reserve
    6. 1.6 Base Load and Peak Load on a Power Station
    7. 1.7 Load Forecasting
      1. 1.7.1 Purpose of Load Forecasting
      2. 1.7.2 Classification of Load Forecasting
      3. 1.7.3 Forecasting Procedure
    8. Key Notes
    9. Short Questions and Answers
    10. Multiple-Choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
  9. Chapter 2. Economic Load Dispatch-I
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Characteristics of Power Generation (Steam) Unit
    3. 2.3 System Variables
      1. 2.3.1 Control Variables (PG and QG)
      2. 2.3.2 Disturbance Variables (PD and QD)
      3. 2.3.3 State Variables (V and δ)
    4. 2.4 Problem of Optimum Dispatch—Formulation
    5. 2.5 Input–Output Characteristics
      1. 2.5.1 Units of Turbine Input
    6. 2.6 Cost Curves
    7. 2.7 Incremental Fuel Cost Curve
    8. 2.8 Heat Rate Curve
    9. 2.9 Incremental Efficiency
    10. 2.10 Non-Smooth Cost Functions with Multivalve Effect
    11. 2.11 Non-smooth Cost Functions with Multiple Fuels
    12. 2.12 Characteristics of a Hydro-Power Unit
      1. 2.12.1 Effect of the Water Head on Discharge of Water for a Hydro-Unit
      2. 2.12.2 Incremental Water Rate Characteristics of Hydro-Units
      3. 2.12.3 Incremental Cost Characteristic of a Hydro-Unit
      4. 2.12.4 Constraints of Hydro-Power Plants
    13. 2.13 Incremental Production Costs
    14. 2.14 Classical Methods for Economic Operation of System Plants
    15. 2.15 Optimization Problem—Mathematical Formulation (Neglecting the Transmission Losses)
      1. 2.15.1 Objective Function
      2. 2.15.2 Constraint Equations
    16. 2.16 Mathematical Determination of Optimal Allocation of Total Load Among Different Units
    17. 2.17 Computational Methods
      1. 2.17.1 Analytical Method
      2. 2.17.2 Graphical Method
      3. 2.17.3 Solution by Using a Digital Computer
    18. 2.18 Economic Dispatch Neglecting Losses and Including Generator Limits
    19. 2.19 Flowchart for Obtaining Optimal Scheduling of Generating Units by Neglecting the Transmission Losses
    20. 2.20 Economical Load Dispatch—In Other Units
      1. 2.20.1 Nuclear units
      2. 2.20.2 Pumped storage hydro-units
      3. 2.20.3 Hydro-plants
      4. 2.20.4 Including reactive-power flows
    21. Key Notes
    22. Short Questions and Answers
    23. Multiple-Choice Questions
    24. Review Questions
    25. Problems
  10. Chapter 3. Economic Load Dispatch-II
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Optimal Generation Scheduling Problem: Consideration of Transmission Losses
      1. 3.2.1 Mathematical modeling
    3. 3.3 Transmission Loss Expression in Terms of Real-Power Generation—Derivation
    4. 3.4 Mathematical Determination of Optimum Allocation of Total Load when Transmission Losses are Taken into Consideration
      1. 3.4.1 Determination of ITL formula
      2. 3.4.2 Penalty Factor
    5. 3.5 Flowchart for the Solution of an Optimization Problem when Transmission Losses are Considered
    6. Key Notes
    7. Short Questions and Answers
    8. Multiple-Choice Questions
    9. Review Questions
    10. Problems
  11. Chapter 4. Optimal Unit Commitment
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Comparison with Economic Load Dispatch
    3. 4.3 Need for UC
    4. 4.4 Constraints in UC
      1. 4.4.1 Spinning Reserve
      2. 4.4.2 Thermal Unit Constraints
      3. 4.4.3 Hydro-Constraints
      4. 4.4.4 Must Run
      5. 4.4.5 Fuel Constraints
    5. 4.5 Cost Function Formulation
      1. 4.5.1 Start-up Cost Consideration
      2. 4.5.2 Shut-down Cost Consideration
    6. 4.6 Constraints for Plant Commitment Schedules
    7. 4.7 Unit Commitment—Solution Methods
      1. 4.7.1 Enumeration Scheme
      2. 4.7.2 Priority-list Method
      3. 4.7.3 Dynamic Programming
    8. 4.8 Consideration of Reliability in Optimal UC Problem
      1. 4.8.1 Patton's security function
    9. 4.9 Optimal UC with Security Constraint
      1. 4.9.1 Illustration of Security Constraint with Example 4.2
    10. 4.10 Start-Up Consideration
    11. Key Notes
    12. Multiple-Choice Questions
    13. Short Questions and Answers
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
  12. Chapter 5. Optimal Power-Flow Problem—Solution Technique
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Optimal Power-Flow Problem without Inequality Constraints
      1. 5.2.1 Algorithm for Computational Procedure
    3. 5.3 Optimal Power-Flow Problem with Inequality Constraints
      1. 5.3.1 Inequality Constraints on Control Variables
      2. 5.3.2 Inequality Constraints on Dependent Variables—Penalty Function Method
    4. Key Notes
    5. Short Questions and Answers
    6. Multiple-Choice Questions
    7. Review Questions
  13. Chapter 6. Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Hydro-Thermal Co-ordination
    3. 6.3 Scheduling of Hydro-Units in a Hydro-Thermal System
    4. 6.4 Co-ordination of Run-off River Plant and Steam Plant
    5. 6.5 Long-Term Co-ordination
    6. 6.6 Short-Term Co-ordination
      1. 6.6.1 Constant Hydro-Generation Method
      2. 6.6.2 Constant Thermal Generation Method
      3. 6.6.3 Maximum Hydro-Efficiency Method
    7. 6.7 General Mathematical Formulation of Long-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
      1. 6.7.1 Solution of Problem-Discretization Principle
      2. 6.7.2 Solution Technique
      3. 6.7.3 Algorithm
    8. 6.8 Solution of Short-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling Problems—Kirchmayer's Method
    9. 6.9 Advantages of Operation of Hydro-Thermal Combinations
      1. 6.9.1 Flexibility
      2. 6.9.2 Greater Economy
      3. 6.9.3 Security of Supply
      4. 6.9.4 Better Energy Conservation
      5. 6.9.5 Reserve Capacity Maintenance
    10. Key Notes
    11. Short Questions and Answers
    12. Multiple-Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
  14. Chapter 7. Load Frequency Control-I
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Necessity of Maintaining Frequency Constant
    3. 7.3 Load Frequency Control
    4. 7.4 Governor Characteristics of a Single Generator
    5. 7.5 Adjustment of Governor Characteristic of Parallel Operating Units
    6. 7.6 LFC: (P–f Control)
    7. 7.7 Q–V Control
    8. 7.8 Generator Controllers (P–f and Q–V Controllers)
    9. 7.9 P–f Control versus Q–V Control
    10. 7.10 Dynamic Interaction Between P–f and Q–V Loops
    11. 7.11 Speed-Governing System
      1. 7.11.1 Speed-Governing System Model
    12. 7.12 Turbine Model
      1. 7.12.1 Non-reheat-type Steam Turbines
      2. 7.12.2 Incremental or Small Signal for a Turbine-Governor System
      3. 7.12.3 Reheat Type of Steam Turbines
    13. 7.13 Generator-Load Model
    14. 7.14 Control Area Concept
    15. 7.15 Incremental Power Balance of Control Area
    16. 7.16 Single Area Identification
      1. 7.16.1 Block Diagram Representation of a Single Area
    17. 7.17 Single Area—Steady-State Analysis
      1. 7.17.1 Speed-Changer Position is Constant (Uncontrolled Case)
      2. 7.17.2 Load Demand is Constant (Controlled Case)
      3. 7.17.3 Speed Changer and Load Demand are Variables
    18. 7.18 Static Load Frequency Curves
    19. 7.19 Dynamic Analysis
    20. 7.20 Requirements of the Control Strategy
      1. 7.20.1 Integral Control
    21. 7.21 Analysis of the Integral Control
    22. 7.22 Role of Integral Controller Gain (KI) Setting
    23. 7.23 Control of Generator Unit Power Output
    24. Key Notes
    25. Short Questions and Answers
    26. Multiple-Choice Questions
    27. Review Questions
    28. Problems
  15. Chapter 8. Load Frequency Control-II
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area Case
    3. 8.3 Response of a Two-Area System—Uncontrolled Case
      1. 8.3.1 Static Response
      2. 8.3.2 Dynamic Response
    4. 8.4 Area Control Error —Two-Area Case
    5. 8.5 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area System (Controlled Case)
      1. 8.5.1 Tie-line Bias Control
      2. 8.5.2 Steady-State Response
      3. 8.5.3 Dynamic Response
    6. 8.6 Optimum Parameter Adjustment
    7. 8.7 Load Frequency and Economic Dispatch Controls
    8. 8.8 Design of Automatic Generation Control Using the Kalman Method
    9. 8.9 Dynamic-State-Variable Model
      1. 8.9.1 Model of Single-Area Dynamic System in a State-Variable Form
      2. 8.9.2 Optimum Control Index (I)
      3. 8.9.3 Optimum Control Problem and Strategy
      4. 8.9.4 Dynamic Equations of a Two-Area System
      5. 8.9.5 State-Variable Model for a Three-Area Power System
      6. 8.9.6 Advantages of State-Variable Model
    10. Key Notes
    11. Short Questions and Answers
    12. Multiple-Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
  16. Chapter 9. Reactive Power Compensation
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Objectives of Load Compensation
      1. 9.2.1 P. f. Correction
      2. 9.2.2 Voltage Regulation Improvement
      3. 9.2.3 Load Balancing
    3. 9.3 Ideal Compensator
    4. 9.4 Specifications of Load Compensation
    5. 9.5 Theory of Load Compensation
      1. 9.5.1 P. f. correction
      2. 9.5.2 Voltage Regulation
    6. 9.6 Load Balancing and p.f. Improvement of Unsymmetrical Three-Phase Loads
      1. 9.6.1 P. f. Correction
      2. 9.6.2 Load Balancing
    7. 9.7 Uncompensated Transmission Lines
      1. 9.7.1 Fundamental Transmission Line Equation
      2. 9.7.2 Characteristic Impedance
      3. 9.7.3 Surge Impedance or Natural Loading
    8. 9.8 Uncompensated Line with Open-Circuit
      1. 9.8.1 Voltage and Current Profiles
      2. 9.8.2 The Symmetrical Line at no-Load
      3. 9.8.3 Underexcited Operation of Generators Due to Line-Charging
    9. 9.9 The Uncompensated Line Under Load
      1. 9.9.1 Radial line with fixed Sending-end Voltage
      2. 9.9.2 Reactive Power Requirements
      3. 9.9.3 The Uncompensated Line Under Load with Consideration of Maximum Power and Stability
    10. 9.10 Compensated Transmission Lines
    11. 9.11 Sub-Synchronous Resonance
      1. 9.11.1 Effects of Series and Shunt Compensation of Lines
      2. 9.11.2 Concept of SSR in Lines
    12. 9.12 Shunt Compensator
      1. 9.12.1 Thyristor-Controlled Reactor
      2. 9.12.2 Thyristor-Switched Capacitor
    13. 9.13 Series Compensator
    14. 9.14 Unified Power-Flow Controller
    15. 9.15 Basic Relationship for Power-Flow Control
      1. 9.15.1 Without Line Compensation
      2. 9.15.2 With Series Capacitive Compensation
      3. 9.15.3 With Shunt Compensation
      4. 9.15.4 With Phase Angle Control
    16. 9.16 Comparison of Different Types of Compensating Equipment for Transmission Systems
    17. 9.17 Voltage Stability—What is it?
      1. 9.17.1 Voltage Stability
      2. 9.17.2 Voltage Collapse
    18. 9.18 Voltage-Stability Analysis
      1. 9.18.1 P–V Curves
      2. 9.18.2 Concept of Voltage Collapse Proximate Indicator
      3. 9.18.3 Voltage-Stability Analysis: Q–V Curves
    19. 9.19 Derivation for Voltage-Stability Index
    20. Key Notes
    21. Short Questions and Answers
    22. Multiple-Choice Questions
    23. Review Questions
    24. Problems
  17. Chapter 10. Voltage Control
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Necessity of Voltage Control
    3. 10.3 Generation and Absorption of Reactive Power
    4. 10.4 Location of Voltage-Control Equipment
    5. 10.5 Methods of Voltage Control
      1. 10.5.1 Excitation Control
      2. 10.5.2 Shunt Capacitors and Reactors
      3. 10.5.3 Series Capacitors
      4. 10.5.4 Tap-Changing Transformers
      5. 10.5.5 Booster Transformers
      6. 10.5.6 Synchronous Condensers
    6. 10.6 Rating of Synchronous Phase Modifier
    7. Key Notes
    8. Short Questions and Answers
    9. Multiple-Choice Questions
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
  18. Chapter 11. Modeling of Prime Movers and Generators
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Hydraulic Turbine System
      1. 11.2.1 Modeling of Hydraulic Turbine
    3. 11.3 Steam Turbine Modeling
      1. 11.3.1 Non-reheat Type
      2. 11.3.2 Reheat type
    4. 11.4 Synchronous Machines
      1. 11.4.1 Salient-pole-type Rotor
      2. 11.4.2 Non-salient-pole-type Rotor
    5. 11.5 Simplified Model of Synchronous Machine (Neglecting Saliency and Changes in Flux Linkages)
    6. 11.6 Effect of Saliency
    7. 11.7 General Equation of Synchronous Machine
    8. 11.8 Determination of Synchronous Machine Inductances
      1. 11.8.1 Assumptions
    9. 11.9 Rotor Inductances
      1. 11.9.1 Rotor Self-Inductance
      2. 11.9.2 Stator to Rotor Mutual Inductances
    10. 11.10 Stator Self-Inductances
    11. 11.11 Stator Mutual Inductances
    12. 11.12 Development of General Machine Equations—Matrix Form
    13. 11.13 Blondel's Transformation (or) Park's Transformation to ‘dqo’ Components
    14. 11.14 Inverse Park's Transformation
    15. 11.15 Power-Invariant Transformation in ‘f-d-q-o’ Axes
    16. 11.16 Flux Linkage Equations
    17. 11.17 Voltage Equations
    18. 11.18 Physical Interpretation of Equations (11.62) and (11.68)
    19. 11.19 Generalized Impedance Matrix (Voltage–Current Relations)
    20. 11.20 Torque Equation
    21. 11.21 Synchronous Machine—Steady-state Analysis
      1. 11.21.1 Salient-pole Synchronous Machine
      2. 11.21.2 Non-salient-pole Synchronous (Cylindrical Rotor) Machine
    22. 11.22 Dynamic Model of Synchronous Machine
      1. 11.22.1 Salient-pole Synchronous Generator—Sub-Transient Effect
      2. 11.22.2 Dynamic Model of Synchronous Machine Including Damper Winding
      3. 11.22.3 Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Generator—Including Damper Winding Effect
    23. 11.23 Modeling of Synchronous Machine—Swing Equation
    24. Key Notes
    25. Short Questions and Answers
    26. Multiple-Choice Questions
    27. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 12. Modeling of Speed Governing and Excitation Systems
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Modeling of Speed-Governing Systems
    3. 12.3 For Steam Turbines
      1. 12.3.1 Mechanical–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
      2. 12.3.2 Electro–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
      3. 12.3.3 General Model for Speed-Governing Systems
    4. 12.4 For Hydro-Turbines
      1. 12.4.1 Mechanical–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
      2. 12.4.2 Electric–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing System
    5. 12.5 Modeling with Limits
      1. 12.5.1 Wind-up Limiter
      2. 12.5.2 Non-wind-up Limiter
    6. 12.6 Modeling of a Steam-Governor Turbine System
      1. 12.6.1 Reheat System Unit
      2. 12.6.2 Block Diagram Representation
      3. 12.6.3 Transfer Function of the Steam-Governor Turbine Modeling
    7. 12.7 Modeling of a Hydro-Turbine-Speed Governor
    8. 12.8 Excitation Systems
    9. 12.9 Effect of Varying Excitation of a Synchronous Generator
      1. 12.9.1 Explanation
      2. 12.9.2 Limitations of Increase in Excitation
    10. 12.10 Methods of Providing Excitation
      1. 12.10.1 Common Excitation Bus Method
      2. 12.10.2 Individual Excitation Method
      3. 12.10.3 Block Diagram Representation Structure of a General Excitation System
    11. 12.11 Excitation Control Scheme
    12. 12.12 Excitation Systems—Classification
      1. 12.12.1 DC Excitation System
      2. 12.12.2 AC Excitation System
      3. 12.12.3 Static Excitation System
    13. 12.13 Various Components and their Transfer Functions of Excitation Systems
      1. 12.13.1 PT and Rectifier
      2. 12.13.2 Voltage Comparator
      3. 12.13.3 Amplifiers
    14. 12.14 Self-excited Exciter and Amplidyne
    15. 12.15 Development of Excitation System Block Diagram
      1. 12.15.1 Transfer Function of the Stabilizing Transformer
      2. 12.15.2 Transfer Function of Synchronous Generator
      3. 12.15.3 IEEE Type-1 Excitation System
      4. 12.15.4 Transfer Function of Overall Excitation System
    16. 12.16 General Functional Block Diagram of an Excitation System
      1. 12.16.1 Terminal Voltage Transducer and Load Compensation
      2. 12.16.2 Exciters and Voltage Regulators
      3. 12.16.3 Excitation System Stabilizer and Transient Gain Reduction
      4. 12.16.4 Power System Stabilizer
    17. 12.17 Standard Block Diagram Representations of Different Excitation Systems
      1. 12.17.1 DC Excitation System
      2. 12.17.2 AC Excitation System
      3. 12.17.3 Static Excitation System
    18. Key Notes
    19. Short Questions and Answers
    20. Multiple-Choice Questions
    21. Review Questions
  20. Chapter 13. Power System Security and State Estimation
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 The Concept of System Security
      1. 13.2.1 Long-Term Planning
      2. 13.2.2 Operational Planning
      3. 13.2.3 On-line Operation
    3. 13.3 Security Analysis
      1. 13.3.1 Digital Simulation
      2. 13.3.2 Hybrid Computer Simulation
      3. 13.3.3 Lyapunov Methods
      4. 13.3.4 Pattern Recognition
    4. 13.4 Security Enhancement
    5. 13.5 SSS Analysis
      1. 13.5.1 Requirements of an SSS Assessor
    6. 13.6 Transient Security Analysis
      1. 13.6.1 Digital Simulation
      2. 13.6.2 Pattern Recognition
      3. 13.6.3 Lyapunov Method
    7. 13.7 State Estimation
      1. 13.7.1 State Estimator
      2. 13.7.2 Static-State Estimation
      3. 13.7.3 Modeling of Uncertainty
      4. 13.7.4 Some Basic Facts of State Estimation
      5. 13.7.5 Least Squares Estimation
      6. 13.7.6 Applications of State Estimation
    8. Key Notes
    9. Short Questions and Answers
    10. Multiple-Choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
  21. Appendix A
  22. Acknowledgments
  23. Copyright