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## Book Description

Power System Operation and Control is a comprehensive text designed for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in electrical engineering. This book aims to meet the requirements of electrical engineering students of universities all over India. This text is written in a simple and easy-to-understand manner and is valuable both as a textbook as well as a reference book for engineering students and practicing engineers.

1. Cover
2. Title page
3. Brief Contents
4. Contents
5. Also by the same author
6. Dedication
7. Preface
8. Chapter 1. Economic Aspects
1. 1.1 Introduction
5. 1.5 Definition of Terms and Factors
8. Key Notes
10. Multiple-Choice Questions
11. Review Questions
12. Problems
9. Chapter 2. Economic Load Dispatch-I
1. 2.1 Introduction
2. 2.2 Characteristics of Power Generation (Steam) Unit
3. 2.3 System Variables
4. 2.4 Problem of Optimum Dispatch—Formulation
5. 2.5 Input–Output Characteristics
6. 2.6 Cost Curves
7. 2.7 Incremental Fuel Cost Curve
8. 2.8 Heat Rate Curve
9. 2.9 Incremental Efficiency
10. 2.10 Non-Smooth Cost Functions with Multivalve Effect
11. 2.11 Non-smooth Cost Functions with Multiple Fuels
12. 2.12 Characteristics of a Hydro-Power Unit
13. 2.13 Incremental Production Costs
14. 2.14 Classical Methods for Economic Operation of System Plants
15. 2.15 Optimization Problem—Mathematical Formulation (Neglecting the Transmission Losses)
16. 2.16 Mathematical Determination of Optimal Allocation of Total Load Among Different Units
17. 2.17 Computational Methods
18. 2.18 Economic Dispatch Neglecting Losses and Including Generator Limits
19. 2.19 Flowchart for Obtaining Optimal Scheduling of Generating Units by Neglecting the Transmission Losses
20. 2.20 Economical Load Dispatch—In Other Units
21. Key Notes
23. Multiple-Choice Questions
24. Review Questions
25. Problems
10. Chapter 3. Economic Load Dispatch-II
11. Chapter 4. Optimal Unit Commitment
1. 4.1 Introduction
2. 4.2 Comparison with Economic Load Dispatch
3. 4.3 Need for UC
4. 4.4 Constraints in UC
5. 4.5 Cost Function Formulation
6. 4.6 Constraints for Plant Commitment Schedules
7. 4.7 Unit Commitment—Solution Methods
8. 4.8 Consideration of Reliability in Optimal UC Problem
9. 4.9 Optimal UC with Security Constraint
10. 4.10 Start-Up Consideration
11. Key Notes
12. Multiple-Choice Questions
14. Review Questions
15. Problems
12. Chapter 5. Optimal Power-Flow Problem—Solution Technique
1. 5.1 Introduction
2. 5.2 Optimal Power-Flow Problem without Inequality Constraints
3. 5.3 Optimal Power-Flow Problem with Inequality Constraints
4. Key Notes
6. Multiple-Choice Questions
7. Review Questions
13. Chapter 6. Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
1. 6.1 Introduction
2. 6.2 Hydro-Thermal Co-ordination
3. 6.3 Scheduling of Hydro-Units in a Hydro-Thermal System
4. 6.4 Co-ordination of Run-off River Plant and Steam Plant
5. 6.5 Long-Term Co-ordination
6. 6.6 Short-Term Co-ordination
7. 6.7 General Mathematical Formulation of Long-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
8. 6.8 Solution of Short-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling Problems—Kirchmayer's Method
9. 6.9 Advantages of Operation of Hydro-Thermal Combinations
10. Key Notes
12. Multiple-Choice Questions
13. Review Questions
14. Problems
14. Chapter 7. Load Frequency Control-I
1. 7.1 Introduction
2. 7.2 Necessity of Maintaining Frequency Constant
4. 7.4 Governor Characteristics of a Single Generator
5. 7.5 Adjustment of Governor Characteristic of Parallel Operating Units
6. 7.6 LFC: (P–f Control)
7. 7.7 Q–V Control
8. 7.8 Generator Controllers (P–f and Q–V Controllers)
9. 7.9 P–f Control versus Q–V Control
10. 7.10 Dynamic Interaction Between P–f and Q–V Loops
11. 7.11 Speed-Governing System
12. 7.12 Turbine Model
14. 7.14 Control Area Concept
15. 7.15 Incremental Power Balance of Control Area
16. 7.16 Single Area Identification
18. 7.18 Static Load Frequency Curves
19. 7.19 Dynamic Analysis
20. 7.20 Requirements of the Control Strategy
21. 7.21 Analysis of the Integral Control
22. 7.22 Role of Integral Controller Gain (KI) Setting
23. 7.23 Control of Generator Unit Power Output
24. Key Notes
26. Multiple-Choice Questions
27. Review Questions
28. Problems
15. Chapter 8. Load Frequency Control-II
1. 8.1 Introduction
2. 8.2 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area Case
3. 8.3 Response of a Two-Area System—Uncontrolled Case
4. 8.4 Area Control Error —Two-Area Case
5. 8.5 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area System (Controlled Case)
7. 8.7 Load Frequency and Economic Dispatch Controls
8. 8.8 Design of Automatic Generation Control Using the Kalman Method
9. 8.9 Dynamic-State-Variable Model
10. Key Notes
12. Multiple-Choice Questions
13. Review Questions
14. Problems
16. Chapter 9. Reactive Power Compensation
1. 9.1 Introduction
2. 9.2 Objectives of Load Compensation
3. 9.3 Ideal Compensator
4. 9.4 Specifications of Load Compensation
5. 9.5 Theory of Load Compensation
7. 9.7 Uncompensated Transmission Lines
8. 9.8 Uncompensated Line with Open-Circuit
9. 9.9 The Uncompensated Line Under Load
10. 9.10 Compensated Transmission Lines
11. 9.11 Sub-Synchronous Resonance
12. 9.12 Shunt Compensator
13. 9.13 Series Compensator
14. 9.14 Unified Power-Flow Controller
15. 9.15 Basic Relationship for Power-Flow Control
16. 9.16 Comparison of Different Types of Compensating Equipment for Transmission Systems
17. 9.17 Voltage Stability—What is it?
18. 9.18 Voltage-Stability Analysis
19. 9.19 Derivation for Voltage-Stability Index
20. Key Notes
22. Multiple-Choice Questions
23. Review Questions
24. Problems
17. Chapter 10. Voltage Control
1. 10.1 Introduction
2. 10.2 Necessity of Voltage Control
3. 10.3 Generation and Absorption of Reactive Power
4. 10.4 Location of Voltage-Control Equipment
5. 10.5 Methods of Voltage Control
6. 10.6 Rating of Synchronous Phase Modifier
7. Key Notes
9. Multiple-Choice Questions
10. Review Questions
11. Problems
18. Chapter 11. Modeling of Prime Movers and Generators
1. 11.1 Introduction
2. 11.2 Hydraulic Turbine System
3. 11.3 Steam Turbine Modeling
4. 11.4 Synchronous Machines
5. 11.5 Simplified Model of Synchronous Machine (Neglecting Saliency and Changes in Flux Linkages)
6. 11.6 Effect of Saliency
7. 11.7 General Equation of Synchronous Machine
8. 11.8 Determination of Synchronous Machine Inductances
9. 11.9 Rotor Inductances
10. 11.10 Stator Self-Inductances
11. 11.11 Stator Mutual Inductances
12. 11.12 Development of General Machine Equations—Matrix Form
13. 11.13 Blondel's Transformation (or) Park's Transformation to ‘dqo’ Components
14. 11.14 Inverse Park's Transformation
15. 11.15 Power-Invariant Transformation in ‘f-d-q-o’ Axes
17. 11.17 Voltage Equations
18. 11.18 Physical Interpretation of Equations (11.62) and (11.68)
19. 11.19 Generalized Impedance Matrix (Voltage–Current Relations)
20. 11.20 Torque Equation
22. 11.22 Dynamic Model of Synchronous Machine
23. 11.23 Modeling of Synchronous Machine—Swing Equation
24. Key Notes
26. Multiple-Choice Questions
27. Review Questions
19. Chapter 12. Modeling of Speed Governing and Excitation Systems
1. 12.1 Introduction
2. 12.2 Modeling of Speed-Governing Systems
3. 12.3 For Steam Turbines
4. 12.4 For Hydro-Turbines
5. 12.5 Modeling with Limits
6. 12.6 Modeling of a Steam-Governor Turbine System
7. 12.7 Modeling of a Hydro-Turbine-Speed Governor
8. 12.8 Excitation Systems
9. 12.9 Effect of Varying Excitation of a Synchronous Generator
10. 12.10 Methods of Providing Excitation
11. 12.11 Excitation Control Scheme
12. 12.12 Excitation Systems—Classification
13. 12.13 Various Components and their Transfer Functions of Excitation Systems
14. 12.14 Self-excited Exciter and Amplidyne
15. 12.15 Development of Excitation System Block Diagram
16. 12.16 General Functional Block Diagram of an Excitation System
17. 12.17 Standard Block Diagram Representations of Different Excitation Systems
18. Key Notes
20. Multiple-Choice Questions
21. Review Questions
20. Chapter 13. Power System Security and State Estimation
1. 13.1 Introduction
2. 13.2 The Concept of System Security
3. 13.3 Security Analysis
4. 13.4 Security Enhancement
5. 13.5 SSS Analysis
6. 13.6 Transient Security Analysis
7. 13.7 State Estimation
8. Key Notes