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Power Plant Life Management and Performance Improvement

Book Description

Coal- and gas-based power plants currently supply the largest proportion of the world’s power generation capacity, and are required to operate to increasingly stringent environmental standards. Higher temperature combustion is therefore being adopted to improve plant efficiency and to maintain net power output given the energy penalty that integration of advanced emissions control systems cause. However, such operating regimes also serve to intensify degradation mechanisms within power plant systems, potentially affecting their reliability and lifespan.

Power plant life management and performance improvement critically reviews the fundamental degradation mechanisms that affect conventional power plant systems and components, as well as examining the operation and maintenance approaches and advanced plant rejuvenation and retrofit options that the industry are applying to ensure overall plant performance improvement and life management.

Part one initially reviews plant operation issues, including fuel flexibility, condition monitoring and performance assessment. Parts two, three and four focus on coal boiler plant, gas turbine plant, and steam boiler and turbine plant respectively, reviewing environmental degradation mechanisms affecting plant components and their mitigation via advances in materials selection and life management approaches, such as repair, refurbishment and upgrade. Finally, part five reviews issues relevant to the performance management and improvement of advanced heat exchangers and power plant welds.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Power plant life management and performance improvement is an essential reference for power plant operators, industrial engineers and metallurgists, and researchers interested in this important field.

  • Provides an overview of the improvements to plant efficiency in coal- and gas-based power plants
  • Critically reviews the fundamental degradation mechanisms that affect conventional power plant systems and components, noting mitigation routes alongside monitoring and assessment methods
  • Addresses plant operation issues including fuel flexibility, condition monitoring and performance assessment

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Foreword
  8. Part I: Power plant fuel flexibility, condition monitoring and performance assessment
    1. Chapter 1: Solid fuel composition and power plant fuel flexibility
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Fuel chemistry and characterisation
      4. 1.3 Use of alternative fuels in combustion power plants and application of technology to improve fuel flexibility
      5. 1.4 Future trends
      6. 1.5 Sources of further information and advice
    2. Chapter 2: Condition monitoring and assessment of power plant components
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Monitoring boiler and heat recovery steam generator
      4. 2.3 Steam turbines and generators
      5. 2.4 Condition monitoring of gas turbines
      6. 2.5 In situ assessment of gas turbine hot parts by non- destructive techniques
      7. 2.6 Remote monitoring solutions
      8. 2.7 Future trends
    3. Chapter 3: Availability analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Basic structure of integrated gasification
      4. 3.3 Availability issues of the ASU
      5. 3.4 Availability issues of the gasification unit
      6. 3.5 Availability issues of acid gas removal (AGR) and sulfur recovery
      7. 3.6 Availability issues of the combined cycle
      8. 3.7 Summary of existing plants
      9. 3.8 Forecast based on RAM modeling
      10. 3.9 Future trends
  9. Part II: Coal boiler plant: materials degradation, plant life management and performance improvement
    1. Chapter 4: Environmental degradation of boiler components
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Component operating environments
      4. 4.3 Degradation mechanisms and modeling
      5. 4.4 Quantification of damage and protective measures
      6. 4.5 Future trends
      7. 4.6 Sources of further information and advice
    2. Chapter 5: Creep in boiler materials: mechanisms, measurement and modelling
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Creep deformation and damage mechanisms in boiler materials
      4. 5.3 Measurement methods
      5. 5.4 Effect of operating environment
      6. 5.5 Predictive modelling
    3. Chapter 6: Microstructural degradation in boiler steels: materials developments, properties and assessment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 The development of steel for power engineering
      4. 6.3 Methodology for assessing the state of a material and determining the residual durability of the operational elements under creep conditions
      5. 6.4 Characteristics of microstructure and property degradation processes
      6. 6.5 Preparation of a classification system for material after operation
      7. 6.6 Modeling degradation processes and their use
      8. 6.7 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 7: Boiler steels, damage mechanisms, inspection and life assessment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Boiler materials, metallurgy and microstructure
      4. 7.3 Damage mechanisms and component failure
      5. 7.4 Inspection and monitoring of damage and integrity/life assessment issues in high chromium martensitic steels
  10. Part III: Gas turbine plant: materials degradation, plant life management and performance improvement
    1. Chapter 8: Creep, fatigue and microstructural degradation in gas turbine superalloys
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1. Introduction
      3. 8.2. Creep
      4. 8.3. Fatigue
      5. 8.4. Combined creep and fatigue
      6. 8.5. Microstructural degradation
      7. 8.6. Future trends
      8. 8.7. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 9: Gas turbine materials selection, life management and performance improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Superalloys
      4. 9.3 Protective coatings
      5. 9.4 Material applications
      6. 9.5 Advanced materials and coatings
      7. 9.6 Life management and diagnostic
      8. 9.7 Future trends
      9. 9.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 9.10 Appendix 1: nomenclature
      11. 9.11 Appendix 2: key definitions
    3. Chapter 10: Gas turbine maintenance, refurbishment and repair
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Field service overhaul and maintenance
      4. 10.3 Parts refurbishment: incoming inspection
      5. 10.4 Parts repair
      6. 10.5 Coating and finishing technology
      7. 10.6 Final repair operations
      8. 10.7 Quality control and first article inspection
      9. 10.8 Part life extension and optimisation
      10. 10.9 Future trends
      11. 10.10 Conclusion
  11. Part IV: Steam boiler and turbine plant: materials degradation, plant life management and performance improvement
    1. Chapter 11: Steam oxidation in steam boiler and turbine environments
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Steam boiler and turbine environments
      4. 11.3 Oxidation thermodynamics and kinetics
      5. 11.4 Scale morphology and spallation
      6. 11.5 Steam oxidation management
      7. 11.6 Future trends
      8. 11.7 Conclusion
      9. 11.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 11.10 Appendix: nominal alloy composition for alloys of interest.
    2. Chapter 12: Steam boiler component loading, monitoring and life assessment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Analysis of different ways of conducting start-up and shut-down operations and their influence on thermal and total stress loads in critical pressure components
      4. 12.3 Monitoring of remnant lifetime of pressure components
      5. 12.4 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 13: Steam turbine materials selection, life management and performance improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 High temperature cylinders
      4. 13.3 Low temperature cylinders
      5. 13.4 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 14: Steam turbine upgrades for power plant life management and performance improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Drivers
      4. 14.3 Product selection and specification
      5. 14.4 Performance improvement
      6. 14.5 Mechanical design
      7. 14.6 Installation
      8. 14.7 Conclusion
      9. 14.9 Appendix: glossary
  12. Part V: Heat exchangers and power plant welds: materials management and performance improvement
    1. Chapter 15: High-temperature heat exchangers in indirectly fired combined cycle (IFCC) systems: materials management and performance improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 High-temperature heat exchanger (HTHX) construction
      4. 15.3 Pilot-scale HTHX testing
      5. 15.4 Conclusions
      6. 15.5 Acknowledgments
    2. Chapter 16: Heat recovery steam generators: performance management and improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Gas turbine heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs)
      4. 16.3 How pinch and approach points affect HRSG size and steam generation
      5. 16.4 HRSG simulation
      6. 16.5 Improving HRSG efficiency
      7. 16.6 Conclusion
      8. 16.9 Appendix: nomenclature
    3. Chapter 17: Power plant welds and joints: materials management and performance improvement
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Materials selection and development
      4. 17.3 Weld/joint degradation
      5. 17.4 Application of degradation-protection technologies
      6. 17.5 Impact on power plant performance/life management
      7. 17.6 Dissimilar joints
      8. 17.7 Inspection and hardness testing
      9. 17.8 Repair
      10. 17.9 Future trends
      11. 17.10 Sources of further information and advice
      12. 17.11 Acknowledgements
  13. Index