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POWER ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Power electronics, which is a rapidly growing area in terms of research and applications, uses modern electronics technology to convert electric power from one form to another, such as ac-dc, dc-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac with a variable output magnitude and frequency. It has many applications in our every day life such as air-conditioners, electric cars, sub-way trains, motor drives, renewable energy sources and power supplies for computers. This book covers all aspects of switching devices, converter circuit topologies, control techniques, analytical methods and some examples of their applications.

Designed to appeal to a new generation of engineering professionals, Power Electronics Handbook, 3rd Edition features four new chapters covering renewable energy, energy transmission, energy storage, as well as an introduction to Distributed and Cogeneration (DCG) technology, including gas turbines, gensets, microturbines, wind turbines, variable speed generators, photovoltaics and fuel cells, has been gaining momentum for quite some time now.smart grid technology. With this book readers should be able to provide technical design leadership on assigned power electronics design projects and lead the design from the concept to production involving significant scope and complexity.



  • Contains 45 chapters covering all aspects of power electronics and its applications
  • Three new chapters now including coverage Energy Sources, Energy Storage and Electric Power Transmission
  • Contributions from more than fifty leading experts spanning twelve different countries

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Content
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Power Electronics Defined1
    2. 1.2 Key Characteristics
    3. 1.3 Trends in Power Supplies
    4. 1.4 Conversion Examples
    5. 1.5 Tools for Analysis and Design
    6. 1.6 Sample Applications
    7. 1.7 Summary
  8. SECTION I. Power Electronics Devices
    1. 2. The Power Diode
      1. 2.1 Diode as a Switch
      2. 2.2 Properties of PN Junction
      3. 2.3 Common Diode Types
      4. 2.4 Typical Diode Ratings
      5. 2.5 Snubber Circuits for Diode
      6. 2.6 Series and Parallel Connection of Power Diodes
      7. 2.7 Typical Applications of Diodes
      8. 2.8 Standard Datasheet for Diode Selection
    2. 3. Power Bipolar Transistors
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Basic Structure and Operation
      3. 3.3 Static Characteristics
      4. 3.4 Dynamic Switching Characteristics
      5. 3.5 Transistor Base Drive Applications
      6. 3.6 SPICE Simulation of Bipolar Junction Transistors
      7. 3.7 BJT Applications
      8. Further Reading
    3. 4. The Power MOSFET
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Switching in Power Electronic Circuits
      3. 4.3 General Switching Characteristics
      4. 4.4 The Power MOSFET
      5. 4.5 Future Trends in Power Devices
    4. 5. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Basic Structure and Operation
      3. 5.3 Static Characteristics
      4. 5.4 Dynamic Switching Characteristics
      5. 5.5 IGBT Performance Parameters
      6. 5.6 Gate Drive Requirements
      7. 5.7 Circuit Models
      8. 5.8 Applications
      9. Further Reading
    5. 6. Thyristors
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Basic Structure and Operation
      3. 6.3 Static Characteristics
      4. 6.4 Dynamic Switching Characteristics
      5. 6.5 Thyristor Parameters
      6. 6.6 Types of Thyristors
      7. 6.7 Gate Drive Requirements
      8. 6.8 PSpice Model
      9. 6.9 Applications
      10. Further Reading
    6. 7. Gate Turn-off Thyristors
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Basic Structure and Operation
      3. 7.3 GTO Thyristor Models
      4. 7.4 Static Characteristics
      5. 7.5 Switching Phases
      6. 7.6 SPICE GTO Model
      7. 7.7 Applications
    7. 8. MOS Controlled Thyristors (MCTs)
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Equivalent Circuit and Switching Characteristics
      3. 8.3 Comparison of MCT and Other Power Devices
      4. 8.4 Gate Drive for MCTs
      5. 8.5 Protection of MCTs
      6. 8.6 Simulation Model of an MCT
      7. 8.7 Generation-1 and Generation-2 MCTs
      8. 8.8 N-channel MCT
      9. 8.9 Base Resistance-controlled Thyristor [14]
      10. 8.10 MOS Turn-off Thyristor [15]
      11. 8.11 Applications of PMCT
      12. 8.12 Conclusions
      13. Acknowledgment
      14. 8.13 Appendix
    8. 9. Static Induction Devices
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Theory of Static Induction Devices
      3. 9.3 Characteristics of Static Induction Transistor
      4. 9.4 Bipolar Mode Operation of SI devices (BSIT)
      5. 9.5 CMT Conductivity Modulation Transistor
      6. 9.6 Static Induction Diode
      7. 9.7 Lateral Punch-Through Transistor
      8. 9.8 Static Induction Transistor Logic
      9. 9.9 BJT Saturation Protected by SIT
      10. 9.10 Static Induction MOS Transistor
      11. 9.11 Space Charge Limiting Load (SCLL)
      12. 9.12 Power MOS Transistors
      13. 9.13 Static Induction Thyristor
      14. 9.14 Gate Turn-Off Thyristor
      15. 9.15 Summary
  9. SECTION II. Power Conversion
    1. 10. Diode Rectifiers
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Single-phase Diode Rectifiers
      3. 10.3 Three-phase Diode Rectifiers
      4. 10.4 Poly-phase Diode Rectifiers
      5. 10.5 Filtering Systems in Rectifier Circuits
      6. 10.6 High-frequency Diode Rectifier Circuits
      7. Further Reading
    2. 11. Single-phase Controlled Rectifiers
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Line-commutated Single-phase Controlled Rectifiers
      3. 11.3 Unity Power Factor Single-phase Rectifiers
      4. Acknowledgment
    3. 12. Three-phase Controlled Rectifiers
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Line-commutated Controlled Rectifiers
      3. 12.3 Force-commutated Three-phase Controlled Rectifiers
      4. Further Reading
    4. 13. DC–DC Converters
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 DC Choppers
      3. 13.3 Step-down (Buck) Converter
      4. 13.4 Step-up (Boost) Converter
      5. 13.5 Buck–Boost Converter
      6. 13.6 uk Converter
      7. 13.7 Effects of Parasitics
      8. 13.8 Synchronous and Bidirectional Converters
      9. 13.9 Control Principles
      10. 13.10 Applications of DC–DC Converters
      11. Further Reading
    5. 14. DC/DC Conversion Technique and Twelve Series Luo-converters
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Fundamental, Developed, Transformer-type, and Self-lift Converters
      3. 14.3 Voltage-lift Luo-converters
      4. 14.4 Double Output Luo-converters
      5. 14.5 Super-lift Luo-converters
      6. 14.6 Ultra-lift Luo-converters
      7. 14.7 Multiple-quadrant Operating Luo-converters
      8. 14.8 Switched-capacitor Multi-quadrant Luo-converters
      9. 14.9 Multiple-lift Push–Pull Switched-capacitor Luo-converters
      10. 14.10 Switched-inductor Multi-quadrant Operation Luo-converters
      11. 14.11 Multi-quadrant ZCS Quasi-resonant Luo-converters
      12. 14.12 Multi-quadrant ZVS Quasi-resonant Luo-converters
      13. 14.13 Synchronous-rectifier DC/DC Luo-converters
      14. 14.14 Multiple-element Resonant Power Converters
      15. 14.15 Gate Control Luo-resonator
      16. 14.16 Applications
      17. 14.17 Energy Factor and Mathematical Modeling for Power DC/DC Converters
      18. Further Reading
    6. 15. Inverters
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Single-phase Voltage Source Inverters
      3. 15.3 Three-phase Voltage Source Inverters
      4. 15.4 Current Source Inverters
      5. 15.5 Closed-loop Operation of Inverters
      6. 15.6 Regeneration in Inverters
      7. 15.7 Multistage Inverters
      8. Acknowledgment
      9. Further Reading
    7. 16. Resonant and Soft-switching Converters
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Classification
      3. 16.3 Resonant Switch
      4. 16.4 Quasi-resonant Converters
      5. 16.5 ZVS in High Frequency Applications
      6. 16.6 Multi-resonant Converters (MRC)
      7. 16.7 Zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) Converters
      8. 16.8 Non-dissipative Active Clamp Network
      9. 16.9 Load Resonant Converters
      10. 16.10 Control Circuits for Resonant Converters
      11. 16.11 Extended-period Quasi-resonant (EP-QR) Converters
      12. 16.12 Soft-switching and EMI Suppression
      13. 16.13 Snubbers and Soft-switching for High Power Devices
      14. 16.14 Soft-switching DC-AC Power Inverters
    8. 17. Multilevel Power Converters
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Multilevel Power Converter Structures
      3. 17.3 Multilevel Converter PWM Modulation Strategies
      4. 17.4 Multilevel Converter Design Example
      5. 17.5 Fault Diagnosis in Multilevel Converters
      6. 17.6 Renewable Energy Interface
      7. 17.7 Conclusion
    9. 18. AC–AC Converters
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Single-Phase AC–AC Voltage Controller
      3. 18.3 Three-Phase AC–AC Voltage Controllers
      4. 18.4 Cycloconverters
      5. 18.5 Matrix Converter
      6. 18.6 High Frequency Linked Single-Phase to Three-Phase Matrix Converters
      7. 18.7 Applications of AC–AC Converters
    10. 19. Power Factor Correction Circuits
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Definition of PF and THD
      3. 19.3 Power Factor Correction
      4. 19.4 CCM Shaping Technique
      5. 19.5 DCM Input Technique
      6. 19.6 Summary
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. Further Reading
    11. 20. Gate Drive Circuitry for Power Converters
      1. 20.1 Introduction to Gate Drive Circuitry
      2. Consumer electronics
      3. Automobile industries
      4. Commercial sectors
      5. Domestic electronics
      6. Utility applications
      7. 20.2 Semiconductor Drive Requirements
      8. 20.3 Gate Drivers for Power Converters
      9. 20.4 Gate Driver Circuit Implementation
      10. 20.5 Current Technologies
      11. 20.6 Current and Future Trends
      12. 20.7 Summary
  10. SECTION III. General Applications
    1. 21. Power Electronics in Capacitor Charging Applications
      1. 21.1 Introduction
      2. 21.2 High-Voltage DC Power Supply with Charging Resistor
      3. 21.3 Resonance Charging
      4. 21.4 Switching Converters
    2. 22. Electronic Ballasts
      1. 22.1 Introduction
      2. 22.2 High Frequency Supply of Discharge Lamps
      3. 22.5 High-Power Factor Electronic Ballasts
      4. 22.6 Applications
    3. 23. Power Supplies
      1. 23.1 Introduction
      2. 23.2 Linear Series Voltage Regulator
      3. 23.3 Linear Shunt Voltage Regulator
      4. 23.4 Integrated Circuit Voltage Regulators
      5. 23.5 Switching Regulators
      6. Further Reading
    4. 24. Uninterruptible Power Supplies
      1. 24.5 Control Techniques
      2. 24.6 Energy Storage Devices
      3. Further Reading
    5. 25. Automotive Applications of Power Electronics
      1. 25.1 Introduction
      2. 25.2 The Present Automotive Electrical Power System
      3. 25.3 System Environment
      4. 25.4 Functions Enabled by Power Electronics
      5. 25.5 Multiplexed Load Control
      6. 25.6 Electromechanical Power Conversion
      7. 25.7 Dual/High Voltage Automotive Electrical Systems
      8. 25.8 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
      9. 25.9 Summary
    6. 26. Solid State Pulsed Power Electronics
      1. 26.1 Introduction
      2. 26.2 Power Semiconductors for Pulsed Power
      3. 26.3. Load Types and Requirements
      4. 26.4 Solid-State Pulsed Power Topologies
  11. SECTION IV. Power Generation and Distribution
    1. 27. Photovoltaic System Conversion
      1. 27.1 Introduction
      2. 27.2 Solar Cell Characteristics
      3. 27.3 Photovoltaic Technology Operation
      4. 27.4 Maximum Power Point Tracking Components
      5. 27.5 MPPT Controlling Algorithms
      6. 27.6 Photovoltaic Systems’ Components
      7. 27.7 Factors Affecting PV Output
      8. 27.8 PV System Design
      9. 27.9 Summary
    2. 28. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Sources
      1. 28.1 Introduction
      2. 28.2 Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Power Systems
      3. 28.3 Power Electronics for Wind Power Systems
    3. 29. High-Frequency Inverters: From Photovoltaic, Wind, and Fuel-Cell-Based Renewable- and Alternative-Energy DER/DG Systems to Energy-Storage Applications
      1. 29.1 Introduction
      2. 29.2 Low-Cost Single-Stage Inverter [2]
      3. 29.3 Ripple-Mitigating Inverter [3, 4]
      4. 29.4 Universal Power Conditioner [1]
      5. 29.5 Hybrid-Modulation-Based Multiphase HFL High-Power Inverter [5–85–8]
      6. Acknowledgement
      7. Copyright Disclosure
    4. 30. Wind Turbine Applications
      1. 30.1 Wind Energy Conversion Systems
      2. 30.2 Power Electronic Converters for Variable Speed Wind Turbines
      3. 30.3 Multilevel Converter for Very High Power Wind Turbines
      4. 30.4 Electrical System of a Wind Farm
      5. 30.5 Future Trends
    5. 31. HVDC Transmission
      1. 31.1 Introduction
      2. 31.2 Main Components of HVDC Converter Station
      3. 31.3 Analysis of Converter Bridge
      4. 31.4 Controls and Protection
      5. 31.5 MTDC Operation
      6. 31.6 Application
      7. 31.7 Modern Trends
      8. 31.8 HVDC System Simulation Techniques
      9. 31.9 Concluding Remarks
      10. Acknowledgments
    6. 32. Flexible AC Transmission Systems
      1. 32.1 Introduction
      2. 32.2 Ideal Shunt Compensator
      3. 32.3 Ideal Series Compensator
      4. 32.4 Synthesis of FACTS Devices
      5. 32.5 Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-Based HVDC Transmission
  12. SECTION V. Motor Drives
    1. 33. Drives Types and Specifications
      1. 33.1 An Overview
      2. 33.2 Drives Requirements & Specifications
      3. 33.3 Drive Classifications and Characteristics
      4. 33.4 Load Profiles and Characteristics
      5. 33.5 Variable Speed Drive Topologies
      6. 33.6 PWM-VSI DRIVE
      7. 33.7 Applications
      8. 33.8 Summary
      9. Further Reading
    2. 34. Motor Drives
      1. 34.1 Introduction
      2. 34.2 DC Motor Drives
      3. 34.3 Induction Motor Drives
      4. 34.4 Synchronous Motor Drives
      5. 34.5 Permanent-magnet AC Synchronous Motor Drives
      6. 34.6 Permanent-magnet Brushless DC Motor Drives
      7. 34.7 Servo Drives
      8. 34.8 Stepper Motor Drives
      9. 34.9 Switched-reluctance Motor Drives
      10. 34.10 Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives
      11. Further Reading
    3. 35. Novel AI-Based Soft Computing Applications in Motor Drives
      1. 35.1 Introduction
      2. 35.2 Differences Between GA and PSO and Other Evolutionary Computation (EC) Techniques
      3. 35.3 Single Objective Genetic Optimization Search Algorithm (SOGA)
      4. 35.4 Single Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Search Algorithm (SOPSO)
      5. 35.5 Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO)
      6. 35.6 Multi-Objective Genetic Optimization Search Algorithm (MOGA)
      7. 35.7 Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Search Algorithm (MOPSO)
      8. 35.8 GA and PSO Applications in Speed Control of Motor Drives
      9. 35.9 Conclusion
  13. SECTION VI. Control
    1. 36. Advanced Control of Switching Power Converters
      1. 36.1 Introduction
      2. 36.2 Switching Power Converter Control Using State-Space Averaged Models
    2. 37. Fuzzy Logic Applications in Electrical Drives and Power Electronics
      1. 37.1 Introduction
      2. 37.2 PI/PD-Like Fuzzy Control Structure
      3. 37.3 FNN PI/PD-Like Fuzzy Control Architecture
      4. 37.4 Learning Algorithm-Based EKF
      5. 37.5 Fuzzy PID Control Design-Based Genetic Optimization
      6. 37.6 Classical PID Versus Fuzzy-PID Controller
      7. 37.7 Genetic-Based Autotuning of Fuzzy-PID Controller
      8. 37.8 Fuzzy and H-∞ Control Design
      9. 37.9 Fuzzy Control for DC–DC Converters
      10. 37.10 Fuzzy Control Design for Switch-Mode Power Converters
      11. 37.11 Optimum Topology of the Fuzzy Controller
      12. 37.12 Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Control System for DC–DC Converters
      13. Further Reading
    3. 38. Artificial Neural Network Applications in Power Electronics and Electrical Drives
      1. 38.1 Introduction
      2. 38.2 Conventional and Neural Function Approximators
      3. 38.3 ANN-based Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
      4. 38.4 ANN-based Controls in Motor Drives
      5. 38.5 ANN-based Controls in Power Converters
      6. Further Reading
    4. 39. DSP-based Control of Variable Speed Drives
      1. 39.1 Introduction
      2. 39.2 Variable Speed Control of AC Machines
      3. 39.3 General Structure of a Three-phase AC Motor Controller
      4. 39.4 DSP-based Control of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Machines
      5. 39.5 DSP-based Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines
      6. 39.6 DSP-based Vector Control of Induction Motors
  14. SECTION VII. Power Quality and EMI Issues
    1. 40. Power Quality
      1. 40.1 Introduction
      2. 40.2 Power Quality
      3. 40.3 Reactive Power and Harmonic Compensation
      4. 40.4 IEEE Standards
      5. 40.5 Conclusions
      6. Further Reading
    2. 41. Active Filters
      1. 41.1 Introduction
      2. 41.2 Types of Active Power Filters
      3. 41.3 Shunt Active Power Filters
      4. 41.4 Series Active Power Filters
      5. 41.5 Hybrid Active Power Filters
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. Further Reading
    3. 42. EMI Effects of Power Converters
      1. 42.1 Introduction
      2. 42.2 Power Converters as Sources of EMI
      3. 42.3 Measurements of Conducted EMI
      4. 42.4 EMI Filters
      5. 42.5 Random Pulse Width Modulation
      6. 42.6 Other Means of Noise Suppression
      7. 42.7 EMC Standards
  15. SECTION VIII. Simulation and Packaging
    1. 43. Computer Simulation of Power Electronics and Motor Drives
      1. 43.1 Introduction
      2. 43.2 Use of Simulation Tools for Design and Analysis
      3. 43.3 Simulation of Power Electronics Circuits with PSpice®
      4. 43.4 Simulations of Power Electronic Circuits and Electric Machines
      5. 43.5 Simulations of AC Induction Machines Using Field Oriented (Vector) Control
      6. 43.6 Simulation of Sensorless Vector Control Using PSpice®
      7. 43.7 Simulations Using Simplorer®
      8. 43.8 Conclusions
    2. 44. Packaging and Smart Power Systems
      1. 44.1 Introduction
      2. 44.2 Background
      3. 44.3 Functional Integration
      4. 44.3.1 Steps to Partitioning
      5. 44.4 Assessing Partitioning Technologies
      6. 44.5 Cost-driven Partitioning [5]
      7. 44.6 Technology-driven Partitioning
      8. 44.7 Example 2.2 kW Motor Drive Design
      9. 44.8 High Temperature (HT) Packaging [6]
      10. Acknowledgment
      11. About the Author
      12. Further Reading
  16. SECTION IX. Energy Sources, Storage and Transmission
    1. 45. Energy Sources
      1. 45.1 Introduction
      2. 45.2 Available Energy Sources
      3. 45.3 Electric Energy Generation Technologies
      4. 45.4 Conclusions
    2. 46. Energy Storage
      1. 46.1 Introduction
      2. 46.2 Energy Storage Elements
      3. 46.3 Modeling of Energy Storage Devices
      4. 46.4 Hybridization of Energy Storage Systems
      5. 46.5 Energy Management and Control Strategies
      6. 46.6 Power Electronics for Energy Storage Systems
      7. 46.7 Practical Case Studies
      8. 46.8 Conclusions
    3. 47. Electric Power Transmission
      1. 47.1 Elements of Power System
      2. 47.2 Generators and Transformers
      3. 47.3 Transmission Line
      4. 47.4 Factors That Limit Power Transfer in Transmission Line
      5. 47.4.6 Ohmic Losses (I2R(TC)) Heat Gain
      6. 47.5 Effect of Temperature on Conductor Sag or Tension
      7. 47.6 Standard and Guidelines on Thermal Rating Calculation
      8. 47.7 Optimizing Power Transmission Capacity
      9. 47.8 Overvoltages and Insulation Requirements of Transmission Lines
      10. 47.9 Methods of Controlling Overvoltages
      11. 47.10 Insulation Coordination
  17. Index