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Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers: Research and Applications

Book Description

Gaseous photomultipliers are defined as gas-filled devices capable of recording single ultraviolet (UV) and visible photons with high position resolution. Used in a variety of research areas, these detectors can be paired with computers to treat and store imaging information of UV-light. Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers: Research and Applications explores the advancement of gaseous detectors as applied for single photon detection. Emphasizing emerging perspectives and new ways to apply gaseous detectors across research fields, this research-based publication is an essential reference source for engineers, physicists, graduate-level students, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
    1. EXPLORATION OF PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOIONIZATION EFFECTS IN GASEOUS PHOTODETECTORS
    2. THE CHALLENGES
    3. SEARCHING FOR SOLUTIONS
    4. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    5. THE PLACE OF GASEOUS PHOTOMULTIPLIERS IN APPLICATIONS AND AMONG ALTERNATIVE DETECTORS
    6. REFERENCES
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Introduction
    1. FUNDAMENTALS AND MAIN DESIGNS OF SINGLE PHOTON DETECTORS
    2. REFERENCES
  9. Chapter 1: Conversion of UV and Visible Photons to Photoelectrons
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. PHOTOIONIZATION OF GASES
    3. 2. LIQUID PHOTOCATHODES
    4. 3. SOLID PHOTOCATHODES
    5. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 2: Electron Multiplication and Electron Multipliers
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. ELECTRON AVALANCHE MULTIPLICATION IN GASES
    3. 2. SECONDARY PROCESSES DURING AVALANCHE DEVELOPMENTS
    4. 3. THE MAIN DESIGNS OF AVALANCHE GASEOUS DETECTORS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF THEIR OPERATION
    5. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. APPENDIX: SIGNAL DEVELOPMENT, READOUT TECHNIQUES, AND HOW POSITION MEASUREMENTS ARE PERFORMED
  11. Chapter 3: Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers Filled with Photosensitive Vapours
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. SEARCH FOR VAPOURS WITH LOW IONIZATION POTENTIAL
    4. 3. EXPERIENCES LEARNED WHEN OPERATING GASEOUS DETECTORS FILLED WITH PHOTOSENSITIVE VAPOURS
    5. 4. THE SINGLE PHOTOELECTRON PULSE HEIGHT SPECTRUM
    6. 5. AGING OF PHOTOSENSITIVE GASEOUS DETECTORS
    7. 6. CATHODE EXCITATION
    8. 7. LEAKAGE CURRENT IN DETECTORS FILLED WITH TMAE VAPOURS
    9. 8. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Chapter 4: Liquid Photocathodes
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION: EARLY OBSERVATIONS
    3. 2. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF TMAE BASED PHOTOCATHODES
    4. 3. OTHER LIQUID PHOTOCATHODES
    5. 4. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Chapter 5: Early Work on UV Sensitive Solid Photocathodes for Gaseous Detectors
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. A MWPC COMBINED WITH A CUI PHOTOCATHODE
    4. 3. OTHER SOLID PHOTOCATHODES
    5. 4. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. APPENDIX
  14. Chapter 6: CsI and Cs2Te Photocathodes
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CsI PHOTOCATHODES
    4. 3. A CsTe PHOTOCATHODE
    5. 4. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. APPENDIX
  15. Chapter 7: Gaseous Detectors Sensitive to Visible Light
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. EARLY WORK ON GASEOUS DETECTORS SENSITIVE TO VISIBLE LIGHT
    4. 3. MASTERING PHOTOCATHODE MANUFACTURING
    5. 4. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF PHOTOCATHODE PROTECTION
    6. 5. HOLE TYPE GASEOUS PHOTOMULTIPLIERS
    7. 6. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Chapter 8: Alternative Position Sensitive Photomultipliers
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. MULTI-ANODE PMTs
    4. 3. MCP-BASED POSITION SENSITIVE PMTs
    5. 4. HYBRID VACUUM PHOTODETECTORS
    6. 5. THE MAIN APPLICATIONS OF POSITION SENSITIVE VACUUM PMTs
    7. 6. SOLID-STATE DETECTORS
    8. 7. APPLICATION OF SOLID-STATE DETECTORS
    9. 8. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. Chapter 9: Cherenkov Light
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CHERENKOV LIGHT
    4. 3. GENERAL THEORY
    5. 4. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Chapter 10: The History of Cherenkov Detectors
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. CHERENKOV DETECTORS
    3. 2. THE PIONEERS
    4. 3. THE BIRTH OF RICH COUNTERS
    5. 4. MODERN RICH COUNTERS
    6. 5. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Chapter 11: A NaF RICH Counter
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. THE HISTORY OF THE NaF RICH PROJECT: THE CPLEAR SPECTROMETER
    3. 2. THE CONVENTIONAL CHERENKOV COUNTER
    4. 3. THE NaF RICH COUNTER
    5. 4. THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE NaF RICH DETECTOR USING A QUARTZ WINDOW AND PAD READOUT
    6. 5. SEPARATION POWER
    7. 6. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Chapter 12: Performance of the CAPRICE94 RICH Detector during the 1994 Balloon Flight
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. THE CAPRICE94 RICH DETECTOR
    4. 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
    5. 4. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Chapter 13: Performance of the CAPRICE98 Balloon Borne Gas-RICH Detector
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. THE GAS-RICH DETECTOR
    4. 3. RESULTS FROM FLIGHT DATA
    5. 4. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  22. Chapter 14: CsI–RICH Detectors
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CsI-MWPC RICH DETECTORS
    4. 3. CsI-GEM RICH DETECTORS
    5. 4. CsI-TGEM/RETGEM RICH DETECTORS
    6. 5. THE COMPASS RICH UPGRADE
    7. 6. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  23. Chapter 15: Other Applications of Photo-Sensitive Detectors
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS
    4. 3. SPECTROSCOPY
    5. 4. ASTROPHYSICS
    6. 5. DETECTION OF SPARKS AND FLAMES
    7. 4. PHOTOSENSITIVE GASEOUS DETECTORS FOR THE READOUT OF SCINTILLATORS
    8. 5. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX: WINDOWLESS GASEOUS DETECTORS FOR PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS
  24. Conclusion
    1. 1. WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF USING GASEOUS PHOTOMULTIPLIERS FILLED WITH PHOTOSENSITIVE VAPORS OR COMBINED LIQUID PHOTOCATHODES?
    2. 2. THE HIGH QE OF GASEOUS PHOTOMULTIPLIERS
    3. 3. HIGH GAS GAINS
    4. 4. HIGH POSITION RESOLUTION
    5. 5. INSENSITIVE TO MAGNETIC FIELDS
    6. 6. TIME RESOLUTION
    7. 7. LARGE AREA DETECTORS
    8. REFERENCES
  25. Appendix
    1. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF POSITION-SENSITIVE GASEOUS PHOTOMULTIPLIERS
    2. REFERENCES
  26. Glossary
  27. Compilation of References
  28. About the Contributors