You are previewing Polymer Testing.
O'Reilly logo
Polymer Testing

Book Description

Polymer research has been giving greater attention to the importance of the interdependence of applications and the behavior of polymeric materials. The complexities call for a self-contained reference work for students, polymer scientists, industrialists, chemists, and polymer technologists. This book is aimed at answering that call. It presents concepts at the intersections of polymer structure, polymer characterization, and new instrumental methodologies for assessing the characteristics of polymers. Various application requirements are covered, with recommendations for the types of instruments best suited for different testing circumstances. It overviews recent work in instrumental methods along with some of the significant advances in polymer characterization. References to key theoretical papers are provided. Possible trends and future developments in quantitative and qualitative analysis are also discussed. This book will encourage scientists and engineers in the polymers field to consider using the new approaches to testing, which can save time and effort in evaluating polymer samples. Students and professionals alike in the polymer processing industries will find this book to be a valuable resource--even a supplement to standard texts in polymer science and engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyrights
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Dedication
  7. About the Author
  8. Chapter 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Polymer Basics
    2. 1.2 Morphological Aspects
    3. 1.3 Chemical Aspects
    4. 1.4 Classification of Polymers
      1. 1.4.1 Homopolymers
      2. 1.4.2 Copolymers
      3. 1.4.3 Block Copolymers
      4. 1.4.4 Graft Copolymers
      5. 1.4.5 Cyclic Polymers
      6. 1.4.6 Branched Polymers
      7. 1.4.7 Dendrite
      8. 1.4.8 Star-Shaped Polymers
      9. 1.4.9 Cross-links
      10. 1.4.10 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
    5. 1.5 Polymerization Techniques
      1. 1.5.1 Free-Radical Polymerization
      2. 1.5.2 Addition Polymerization
      3. 1.5.3 Anionic Polymerization
      4. 1.5.4 Cationic Polymerization
      5. 1.5.5 Ring-Opening Polymerization
      6. 1.5.6 Chain-Transfer Polymerization
    6. 1.6 Polymerization Processes
      1. 1.6.1 Bulk Polymerization
      2. 1.6.2 Emulsion Polymerization
      3. 1.6.3 Solution Polymerization
      4. 1.6.4 Suspension Polymerization
      5. 1.6.5 Step-Growth Polymerization
    7. 1.7 Polymer Synthesis
    8. 1.8 Polymer Structure and Properties
    9. 1.9 Requirements for Instrumental Methods
    10. References
  9. Chapter 2 Polymer Separation Techniques
    1. 2.1 Chromatographic Methods
      1. 2.1.1 Pumps
      2. 2.1.2 Columns
      3. 2.1.3 Column Substrates
      4. 2.1.4 Detectors
      5. 2.1.5 Efficiency
    2. 2.2 Liquid Chromatography
      1. 2.2.1 Requirements for Liquid Chromatography
      2. 2.2.2 Separation Variables
    3. 2.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
    4. 2.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography
      1. 2.4.1 Basics of GPC
      2. 2.4.2 Separation
      3. 2.4.3 Mechanism
      4. 2.4.4 Packing Materials
      5. 2.4.5 Instrumentation
      6. 2.4.6 Sample Testing
      7. 2.4.7 Calibration
      8. 2.4.8 Column Packing
      9. 2.4.9 Chromatogram
      10. 2.4.10 Advantages
      11. 2.4.11 Disadvantages
    5. 2.5 Field-Flow Fractionation
      1. 2.5.1 Basics of FFF
      2. 2.5.2 Separation Mechanism
      3. 2.5.3 Efficiency and Resolution
      4. 2.5.4 Advantages
    6. 2.6 Super-Fluid Chromatography
      1. 2.6.1 Mobile Phase
      2. 2.6.2 Stationary Phase
      3. 2.6.3 Pumps
      4. 2.6.4 Pressure Control
      5. 2.6.5 Ovens
      6. 2.6.6 Advantages
      7. 2.6.7 Disadvantages
    7. 2.7 Gas Chromatography
      1. 2.7.1 Basics of GC
      2. 2.7.2 Instrumentation
      3. 2.7.3 Advantages
      4. 2.7.4 Disadvantages
    8. 2.8 Future Trends
    9. References
  10. Chapter 3 Spectroscopic Techniques
    1. 3.1 Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
      1. 3.1.1 Principle
      2. 3.1.2 Instrumentation
      3. 3.1.3 Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-FTIR
      4. 3.1.4 FTIR and Analysis
      5. 3.1.5 Advantages
      6. 3.1.6 Disadvantages
    2. 3.2 Raman Spectroscopy
      1. 3.2.1 Principle and Operation
      2. 3.2.2 Instrumentation
      3. 3.2.3 Advantages
      4. 3.2.4 Disadvantages
    3. 3.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
      1. 3.3.1 Principle
      2. 3.3.2 Solvents
      3. 3.3.3 Instrumentation
      4. 3.3.4 Chemical Shifts
      5. 3.3.5 Advantages
      6. 3.3.6 Disadvantages
    4. References
  11. Chapter 4 Thermal Analysis and Degradation
    1. 4.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
      1. 4.1.1 Principle
      2. 4.1.2 Instrumentation
      3. 4.1.3 Advantages
      4. 4.1.4 Disadvantage
    2. 4.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
      1. 4.2.1 Principle
      2. 4.2.2 Instrumentation
      3. 4.2.3 Advantages
      4. 4.2.4 Disadvantage
    3. 4.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
      1. 4.3.1 Principle
      2. 4.3.2 Instrumentation
    4. 4.4 Polymer Degradation
      1. 4.4.1 Thermal Degradation Kinetics
    5. References
  12. Chapter 5 Rheology and Other Instrumental Techniques
    1. 5.1 Rheology
      1. 5.1.1 Principle
      2. 5.1.2 The Rheometer
      3. 5.1.3 Instrumentation
      4. 5.1.4 The Online Rheometer
      5. 5.1.5 Advantages
      6. 5.1.6 Disadvantages
    2. 5.2 Mass Spectrometry
      1. 5.2.1 Principle
      2. 5.2.2 Advantages
      3. 5.2.3 Disadvantages
    3. 5.3 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry
      1. 5.3.1 Sample Preparation
      2. 5.3.2 Instrumentation
      3. 5.3.3 Advantages
      4. 5.3.4 Disadvantages
    4. 5.4 Electron Microscopy
      1. 5.4.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
      2. 5.4.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    5. 5.5 Future Trends
    6. References
  13. Chapter 6 Thermoplastics
    1. 6.1 Polyethylene (PE)
      1. 6.1.1 Infrared and Raman Spectra of Linear Polyethylene
      2. 6.1.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of High-Density Polyethylene
      3. 6.1.3 Fourier-Transform IR (FTIR) Spectra of LDPE
    2. 6.2 Polypropylene (PP)
      1. 6.2.1 FTIR Spectrum of Polypropylene
      2. 6.2.2 FTIR Spectra of Degradation of Polypropylene
    3. 6.3 Polystyrene (PS)
      1. 6.3.1 Molecular-Weight Distribution of Polystyrene
      2. 6.3.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of Polystyrene
    4. 6.4 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
      1. 6.4.1 Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate
      2. 6.4.2 NMR Spectrum of Polyethylene Terephthalate
      3. 6.4.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Polyethylene Terephthalate
    5. 6.5 Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
      1. 6.5.1 FTIR Spectrum of Polyvinylchloride
      2. 6.5.2 FTIR Spectrum of PVC and Plasticizer
    6. 6.6 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
      1. 6.6.1 Molecular-Weight Distribution of PMMA
      2. 6.6.2 Infrared and Raman Spectra of PMMA
      3. 6.6.3 TGA and DSC of PMMA
    7. 6.7 Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc)
      1. 6.7.1 FTIR Spectra of PVAc
      2. 6.7.2 FTIR Spectra of PVAc and Its First-Stage Degradation
    8. 6.8 Nylon
      1. 6.8.1 FTIR Spectra of Nylon 6
      2. 6.8.2 FT Raman Spectra of Nylon 4 and Nylon 11
    9. 6.9 Polycarbonate (PC)
      1. 6.9.1 FTIR Spectrum of Polycarbonate
      2. 6.9.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis of Polycarbonate
    10. 6.10 Infrared Bands for Identification of Thermoplastic Materials
    11. 6.11 Future Trends
    12. References
  14. Chapter 7 Thermosets
    1. 7.1 Phenol Formaldehyde
      1. 7.1.1 DSC Thermogram of Phenol Formaldehyde
      2. 7.1.2 FTIR Spectrum of Lignin–Phenol Formaldehyde Resol Resin
      3. 7.1.3 DSC of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
      4. 7.1.4 NMR Spectrum of the Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
    2. 7.2 Urea Formaldehyde
      1. 7.2.1 Proton NMR Spectrum of Urea Formaldehyde Resin
    3. 7.3 Melamine Formaldehyde
      1. 7.3.1 FT Raman Spectra of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin
    4. 7.4 Epoxy Thermosets
      1. 7.4.1 Pyrogram of Cross-Linked Epoxy Resin (Printed Circuit Board)
    5. 7.5 Future Trends
    6. References
  15. Chapter 8 Polymer Blends and Composites
    1. 8.1 Polymer Blends
      1. 8.1.1 TGA of PVC and Liquid Natural Rubber
      2. 8.1.2 Raman Spectra of Phenoxy PMMA Blends
      3. 8.1.3 DSC of Polypropylene and Low-Density Polyethylene
      4. 8.1.4 FTIR of a Nylon 6 Blend
      5. 8.1.5 IR Spectrum of Nylon 4, 6 and Ethylvinylalcohol (EVOH)
    2. 8.2 Polymer Composites
      1. 8.2.1 Measurement of Torque on Polypropylene/Wood Flour/Modified Polypropylene
      2. 8.2.2 DSC of Wood/HDPE
      3. 8.2.3 FTIR of Lignocellulosic Reinforcement and HDPE Matrix
      4. 8.2.4 TGA of Neat Polypropylene and Oil-Palm Wood Flour Filler
      5. 8.2.5 FTIR of Impregnated Wood Polymer Composite
      6. 8.2.6 Thermal Degradation of Untreated and Alkali-Treated Sesame Husks Composites
    3. 8.3 Future Trends
    4. 8.4 Conclusion
    5. References
  16. Index
  17. Back Cover