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Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites

Book Description

Understanding the properties of polymer carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is the key to these materials finding new applications in a wide range of industries, including but not limited to electronics, aerospace and biomedical/bioengineering. Polymer-carbon nanotube composites provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation, properties and applications of these technologically interesting new materials.

Part one covers the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, with chapters covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment, as well as elastomer and thermoset CNT composites. Part two concentrates on properties and characterization, including chapters on the quantification of CNT dispersion using microscopy techniques, and on topics as diverse as thermal degradation of polymer/CNT composites, the use of rheology, Raman spectroscopy and multi-scale modelling to study polymer/CNT composites, and CNT toxicity. In part three, the applications of polymer/CNT composites are reviewed, with chapters on specific applications such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Polymer-carbon nanotube composites is an essential reference for scientists, engineers and designers in high-tech industry and academia with an interest in polymer nanotechnology and nanocomposites.

  • Provides comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the preparation, characterisation and properties of these technologically interesting new materials
  • Reviews the preparation and processing of composites of thermoplastics with CNTs, covering in-situ polymerization, melt processing and CNT surface treatment
  • Explores applications of polymer/CNT composites such as in fibres and cables, bioengineering applications and conductive polymer CNT composites for sensing

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Introduction to polymer–carbon nanotube composites
  7. Part I: Preparation and processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
    1. Chapter 1: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites by in-situ polymerization
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 In-situ polymerization techniques for polyolefin-CNT composites
      4. 1.3 Polymer architecture by metallocene catalysis
      5. 1.4 Polyethylene–CNT composites
      6. 1.5 Polypropylene–CNT composites
      7. 1.6 Conclusion and future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Surface treatment of carbon nanotubes via plasma technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Carbon nanotube surface chemistry and solution-based functionalization
      4. 2.3 Plasma treatment of carbon nanotubes
      5. 2.4 Summary
    3. Chapter 3: Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers
      4. 3.3 Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with polymers
      5. 3.4 Conclusion
      6. 3.5 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 4: Influence of material and processing parameters on carbon nanotube dispersion in polymer melts
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Fundamentals of melt mixing and filler dispersion
      4. 4.3 Review of the literature
      5. 4.4 Batch compounding using small-scale mixers
      6. 4.5 Continuous melt mixing using extruders
      7. 4.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 4.7 Acknowledgements
    5. Chapter 5: High-shear melt processing of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 High-shear processing technique
      4. 5.3 Polymer nanoblends by high-shear processing
      5. 5.4 Polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites by high-shear processing
      6. 5.5 Conclusion and future trends
    6. Chapter 6: Injection moulding of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Background
      4. 6.3 Experiment design and materials
      5. 6.4 Analysis
      6. 6.5 Conclusion
      7. 6.7 Appendix: list of units
    7. Chapter 7: Elastomer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Processing
      4. 7.3 Structure–property relationships
      5. 7.4 Systems with ionic liquids for increased coupling activity
      6. 7.5 Hybrid systems based on silica filler
      7. 7.6 Conclusion
    8. Chapter 8: Epoxy–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Experimental materials and methods
      4. 8.3 Chemorheological approach
      5. 8.4 Chemorheological analysis of epoxy-CNTs systems
      6. 8.5 Properties of epoxy–CNT composites
      7. 8.6 Conclusion and future trends
  8. Part II: Properties and characterization of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
    1. Chapter 9: Quantification of dispersion and distribution of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites using microscopy techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Light microscopy
      4. 9.3 Transmission electron microscopy
      5. 9.4 Conclusion and future trends
      6. 9.6 Appendix: list of abbreviations
    2. Chapter 10: Influence of thermo-rheological history on electrical and rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Background
      4. 10.3 Measuring techniques and materials
      5. 10.4 Destruction and formation of electrical and rheological networks
      6. 10.5 Influence of processing history
      7. 10.6 Conclusion
      8. 10.7 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 11: Electromagnetic properties of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Electromagnetic wave absorbing CNT composites
      4. 11.3 Electromagnetic shielding CNT composites
      5. 11.4 Other CNT composites’ electromagnetic applications
      6. 11.5 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 12: Mechanical properties of polymer–polymer-grafted carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Grafting of polymers onto CNTs
      4. 12.3 Fabrication of composites
      5. 12.4 Mechanical properties of polymer composites containing polymer-grafted CNTs
      6. 12.5 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 13: Multiscale modeling of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Computational modeling tools
      4. 13.3 Equivalent-continuum modeling concepts
      5. 13.4 Specific equivalent-continuum modeling methods
      6. 13.5 Example: polymer–carbon nanotube composite
      7. 13.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 13.7 Sources of further information
    6. Chapter 14: Raman spectroscopy of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 The Raman effect: basic principles
      4. 14.3 Molecules and fibers under strain: how the Raman spectrum is affected
      5. 14.4 Raman signature of carbon nanotubes
      6. 14.5 Usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in nanotube-based composites
      7. 14.6 Conclusion
      8. 14.7 Acknowledgements
    7. Chapter 15: Rheology of polymer–carbon nanotube composites melts
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Linear rheological properties of polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites
      4. 15.3 Non-linear rheological properties of polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites
      5. 15.4 Flow-induced crystallization in polymer–carbon nanotube (CNT) composites
      6. 15.5 Conclusion
    8. Chapter 16: Thermal degradation of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Mechanisms of thermal degradation/stability improvement by CNTs
      4. 16.3 The thermal degradation of polymer–CNT composites
      5. 16.4 Future trends
      6. 16.5 Conclusion
      7. 16.7 Appendix: symbols and abbreviations
    9. Chapter 17: Polyolefin–carbon nanotube composites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Processing methods used in CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites
      4. 17.3 Mechanical properties of CNT–polyolefin nanocomposites
      5. 17.4 Crystallinity of polyolefin–CNT blends
      6. 17.5 Rheological properties of CNT–polyolefin blends
      7. 17.6 Electrical properties of CNT–polyolefin blends
      8. 17.7 Wear behaviour of polyolefin–CNT composites
      9. 17.8 Thermal conductivity of polyolefin–CNT composites
      10. 17.9 Thermal degradation and flame-retardant properties
      11. 17.10 Conclusion and future trends
    10. Chapter 18: Composites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT composites: a literature survey
      4. 18.3 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)–MWCNT melt processing and bulk material properties
      5. 18.4 Changes in crystalline structure and crystal conformation
      6. 18.5 Thermal stability of PET–MWCNT composites
      7. 18.6 Formation of CNT networks in PET: rheological and electrical percolation
      8. 18.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 18.8 Acknowledgements
    11. Chapter 19: Carbon nanotubes in multiphase polymer blends
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Current state of melt mixing polymer blends with nanotubes
      4. 19.3 Localization of CNTs in polymer blends during melt mixing
      5. 19.4 Tailoring the localization of CNTs
      6. 19.5 Utilization of selective localization: double percolated polycarbonate–acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC–ABS)-CNT blends
      7. 19.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 19.7 Acknowledgements
    12. Chapter 20: Toxicity and regulatory perspectives of carbon nanotubes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Toxic effects of nanomaterials and nanoparticles: public perception and the necessary ‘risk-versus-reward’ debate
      3. 20.2 Toxicology of carbon nanotubes in comparison to other particulate materials
      4. 20.3 Comparisons between carbon nanotubes and asbestos: a summary of respiratory studies
      5. 20.4 Toxicity of carbon nanotubes
      6. 20.5 Influence of the parameters of carbon nanotubes on their toxicity
      7. 20.6 Future biological applications of carbon nanotubes
      8. 20.7 Future trends
      9. 20.8 Conclusion
  9. Part III: Applications of polymer–carbon nanotube composites
    1. Chapter 21: The use of polymer–carbon nanotube composites in fibres
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Preparation of polymer–CNT fibres
      4. 21.3 Orientation of CNTs and polymer
      5. 21.4 Mechanical properties of polymer–CNT fibres
      6. 21.5 A theoretical approach to reinforcement efficiency of CNTs
      7. 21.6 Electrical properties of polymer–CNT fibres
      8. 21.7 Sensing properties of polymer–CNT fibres
      9. 21.8 Conclusion and future trends
    2. Chapter 22: Biomedical/bioengineering applications of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction to biomaterials and implants
      3. 22.2 Orthopaedic implants
      4. 22.3 Nanomaterials in medicine
      5. 22.4 Load-bearing implants for orthopaedic applications
      6. 22.5 Carbon nanotubes in dentistry
      7. 22.6 Carbon nanotubes and dental restorative materials
      8. 22.7 Carbon nanotubes in periodontal dentistry
      9. 22.8 Carbon nanotubes and denture-based resin
      10. 22.9 Carbon nanotubes and targeted drug delivery for oral cancer
      11. 22.10 Carbon nanotubes used for monitoring biological systems
      12. 22.11 Carbon nanotube biosensors
      13. 22.12 Bioactivity of carbon nanotubes
      14. 22.13 Regulation of occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes
      15. 22.14 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 23: Fire-retardant applications of polymer–carbon nanotubes composites: improved barrier effect and synergism
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Fire protection mechanisms
      4. 23.3 Using carbon nanotubes to develop fire-retardant solutions
      5. 23.4 Synergism
      6. 23.5 Carbon nanotubes in flame-resistant coatings
      7. 23.6 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 24: Polymer–carbon nanotube composites for flame-retardant cable applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites
      4. 24.3 Cable with the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–organoclay–aluminium trihydrate (ATH) flame-retardant system
      5. 24.4 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 25: Polymer–carbon nanotube conductive nanocomposites for sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Basic concepts of conductive polymer nanocomposites
      4. 25.3 Carbon nanotube (CNT) conductive polymer nanocomposite (CPC) transducers’ fabrication
      5. 25.4 Sensing properties and applications of CNT conductive polymer nanocomposites
      6. 25.5 Conclusion
      7. 25.6 Acknowledgements
  10. Index