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Politics, Democracy, and E-Government: Participation and Service Delivery

Book Description

Politics, Democracy and E-Government: Participation and Service Delivery examines how e-government impacts politics and democracy in both developed and developing countries, discussing the participation of citizens in government service delivery. This book brings forth the idea that e-government has a direct influence on the important function of governing through participation and service delivery. Containing chapters from leading e-government scholars and practitioners from across the globe, the overall objective of this book is accomplished through its discussion on the influences of e-government on democratic institutions and processes.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
      1. E-Participation
      2. E-Democracy
      3. E-Governance
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. E-Participation
    1. 1. The Potential of E-Participation in Sustainable Development Evaluation: Evidence from Case Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Critical Overview Of Current Sustainable Development Indicators
      4. THE CHALLENGE OF E-PARTICIPATION IN POLICY-MAKING
        1. The Case Study of Western Garden Cities in Amsterdam
        2. IntelCities Case Studies in Finland, Iceland and Germany
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 2. Citizens and E-Government Service Delivery: Techniques to Increase Citizen Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Literature Overview
        2. Methodology
        3. Conditions Affecting Citizen Adoption Rates
        4. Process Complexity
        5. State Government Culture
        6. Payment Options
        7. Convenience and Other Premium Charges
        8. Trust Factors
        9. Access to Technology
        10. State Agency Incentives
        11. State Mandates
        12. Vehicle Registration
          1. Illinois
          2. Indiana
          3. Kentucky
          4. Ohio
        13. Income Tax Filing
          1. Illinois
          2. Indiana
        14. Kentucky
          1. Ohio
        15. State Incentives: Mandatory Requirements
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 3. E-Government and Citizen Participation in Chile: The Case of Ministries Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT, MANAGEMENT AND PARTICIPATION
      4. E-PARTICIPATION APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGY
      5. E-GOVERNMENT AND STATE REFORM IN CHILE
      6. PARTICIPATION IN CHILE
      7. E-PARTICIPATION IN MINISTRIES
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 4. E-Government and Opportunities for Participation: The Case of the Mexican State Web Portals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT AND E-DEMOCRACY
        1. Electronic Government: A Broad Concept
        2. Democracy, Citizen Participation, and E-Democracy
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
        1. Evaluation of State Portals
        2. Interviews
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
        1. Opportunities for Participation on State Portals
        2. E-Government and Citizen Participation: The Case of Michoacan
          1. Information and Data
          2. Information Technologies
          3. Organization and Administration
          4. Legal and Regulatory Framework
          5. Institutional and Environmental Context
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 5. A Comparative Analysis of Local Agenda 21 Websites in Turkey in Terms of E-Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE IMPACT OF ICTS ON PARTICIPATION: E-PARTICIPATION
      5. LOCAL AGENDA 21 AS A PARTICIPATION PLATFORM AND THE CRITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF E-PARTICIPATION
      6. AN ANALYSIS OF THE LOCAL AGENDA 21 WEBSITES IN TURKEY: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
        1. Framework of the Research
        2. Criteria of the Research
        3. Findings
          1. From the perspective of LA 21s
          2. From the Perspective of E-Participation Services
      7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 6. Government 2.0 in Korea: Focusing on E-Participation Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXISTING SCHOLARSHIP
        1. Overlapping Studies on Information Technology, Government, and Politics and E-Participation
        2. Overview of existing Participation Models
        3. A Brief history of Public Participation Scholarship with a Focus on Public Administration
        4. Gov 2.0 and the Evolution of E-government
      4. E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN KOREA FOR E-PARTICIPATION
        1. E-Ombudsman Service (Shin-moon-go)
          1. Assessment and Evaluation of Shin-moon-go
        2. Korea Government's Public Information Disclosure System (PDIS: Open Government)
          1. Assessment and Evaluation of PDIS/Open Government
        3. Civil Proposal Services
          1. Civil Proposals through Shin-moon-go
          2. Civil Proposals through People's Proposal
        4. Call and Change: Government Call Center (110 Service)
        5. Other Notable Online Services
      5. CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF GOV 2.0
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. 7. Internet Use and Political Participation of American Youth: The Campaign of 2008
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW
      4. DATA AND METHODS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. APPENDIX
    8. 8. Participatory E-Planning: Bridging Theory and Practice through Improvements in Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF PLANNING
      4. BRIDIGING THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PARTICIPATORY PLANNING
      5. E-GOVERNMENT AND DEMOCRATIZATION OF E-PLANNING
      6. LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY TO LINK THEORY AND PRACTICE
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. 2. E-Democracy
    1. 9. Perception Differences of Online Voting Between Young and Senior Voters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Adopting New Technology
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Research Model and hypotheses
        2. Data Collection: Subjects and Sampling Plan
        3. Instruments
      5. DATA ANALYSIS
        1. Reliability Analysis
        2. Analysis of Hypotheses
        3. Discussion
        4. Differences between new Voters and Seniors
        5. Performance Expectancy
        6. Effort Expectancy
        7. Social Influence
        8. Computer Anxiety
        9. Qualitative Study Results
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
        1. Limitations
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX A. CONSTRUCT QUESTIONS
        1. Behavioral Intent (dependent variable)
        2. Performance Expectancy
        3. Effort Expectancy
        4. Social Influence
        5. Computer Anxiety
    2. 10. 24-7 Government, the Permanent Campaign, and e-Democracy: Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick's Interactive Website
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Permanent Campaign
        2. Research Studies of Political Websites
        3. Use of Technology by Elected officials to Engage and Mobilize Constituents
      4. THE GOVERNOR'S WEBSITE ORIGINS, GOALS, AND CHALLENGES
      5. DESCRIPTION OF WEBSITE CONTENT: FEATURED ISSUES, POLICIES AND WORKING GROUPS
        1. Issues
        2. Featured Policies and Working Groups
      6. REACTIONS FROM THE PUBLIC, PRESS AND POLITICIANS
        1. Citizens' Feedback and Visits
        2. Media Coverage
        3. Politicians' Survey Responses
        4. A Two Year Retrospective on the Response
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 11. UK E-Voting: A Lost Opportunity for Participatory Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: THE RATIONALE FOR CHANGE
      4. VARIABLES AFFECTING PILOT PARTICIPATION
        1. 2003 Pilots-Drivers for Local Decision-Making
        2. 2007: Enthusiasm Waning
        3. The Diffusion of E-Voting
        4. The Innovation: Decision Process for organisations
          1. Agenda Setting/Matching
        5. The Innovation: Decision Process for the Individual
          1. Knowledge and Persuasion
        6. Decision
        7. Perceived Attributes
        8. Relative Advantage
          1. Complexity
          2. Compatibility
          3. Trialability
          4. Observability
        9. A Revised Public Policy Diffusion Model
        10. A New Model
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A REVISED APPROACH TO POLICY FORMULATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 12. Deliberation, Participation, and "Pockets" of E-Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. "Pockets" of Democracy
        2. Critiques of Digital Democracy and the Democratic Moment
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    5. 13. A Review of City Portals: The Transformation of Service Provision under the Democratization of the Fourth Phase
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. City Portal
        2. The Fourfold Classification
      3. THE TRANSFORMATION
      4. THE PAST FIVE YEARS
        1. Towards Digitally-Inclusive Platforms
      5. THE USER COMMUNITY AS A SOCIALLY-INCLUSIVE BODY
      6. CITIZENS AS A SOCIALLY-INCLUSIVE BODY UNDERPINNED BY DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Citizens to the Fore
        2. The Key Unlocking the Potential
      7. BENCHMARKING CITY PORTALS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    6. 14. E-Government and the EU: Democratisation through Technology?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Institutional Accountability and Behaviour in the 1990s
        2. Technology as a Social Process
        3. Societal Consequences of Technology
        4. Social Participation in Technology
        5. Establishing a Measure of EU Democratisation
        6. Democratic Governance and the Public Sphere
        7. Democratic Accountability, the Information Society and Public Opinion
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. 15. Evaluating Social Networking in Public Diplomacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Scope of Diplomacy Enlarged
        2. Social Networking, Public Diplomacy, and Relationships
        3. Café USA
      3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
        1. Data Collection Procedure
        2. Relationship Management (RQ1)
          1. Mutuality
          2. Networking
          3. Assurances of Legitimacy
        3. Evaluating E-Diplomacy (RQ2)
          1. Short-Term Measures
          2. Longer-Term Measures
        4. Relationship Building from South Koreans' Perspective (RQ3)
          1. Communal Mutuality
          2. Access
          3. Trust
        5. Discussion
      4. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    8. 16. Online Activism and Computer Mediated Communications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Environmental Activism
          1. Background
          2. Activism
        2. Anti-Globalisation Activism
          1. EZLN - Zapatistas
          2. Activism
          3. Hacktivism
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
  8. 3. E-Governance
    1. 17. Digital Cities: Towards Connected Citizens and Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 18. Explaining the Global Digital Divide: The Impact of Public Policy Initiatives on E-Government Capacity and Reach Worldwide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPACT OF POLICY INITIATIVES ON E-GOVERNMENT CAPACITY AND REACH
        1. Data and Methods
          1. Resources and Capacity
          2. Political Freedom and Structure
          3. National Regulatory Authority
          4. Competition in Telecommunication Industries
          5. Financial Investment
        2. Data Analysis and Findings
          1. E-Government Capacity
        3. Information and Communication Technology Diffusion
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
      11. APPENDIX
    3. 19. Helping to Bridge the Digital Divide with Free Software and Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. New Technology, New Divisions
        2. Technical Tools to Address the Digital Divide
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
          1. New Media and New Politics
          2. The Problem with the Digital Divide
          3. Bridging the Digital Divide
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
          1. Advantages of Open Source Software
          2. Useful Open Source Programs
          3. Free Services
          4. Complimentary Hardware Savings through Open Source Software
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 20. Citizen Consultation from Above and Below: The Australian Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION1
        1. The Limitations of Top-Down Consultation
        2. The Bottom-Up Alternative: Political Informatics
        3. Connecting Top-Down and Bottom- Up through Social Media
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
    5. 21. E-Government in Brazil: Reinforcing Dominant Institutions or Reducing Citizenship?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICTS AND CITIZENSHIP
        1. Cultural Citizenship
        2. Ecological Citizenship
        3. Technological Citizenship
      4. E-GOVERNMENT IN BRAZIL
        1. E-Health in Brazil
        2. E-Voting in Brazil
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 22. "Potential" Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Country Classifications
        2. Sustainability
        3. Factors Affecting E-Government and Strategies for E-Government
        4. A Phased Approach to E-Government Implementation
      4. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR E-GOVERNMENT: POTENTIAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION
        1. A Lack of Infrastructure: The "Traditional" View
        2. Sustainability of E-Government
        3. The Presence of Many Cultures
        4. Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Attitudes
        5. Privacy and Security
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. 23. Ontology Driven E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS AN ONTOLOGY?
        1. Selection of a Semantic Framework
        2. Ontology Modelling Guidelines
        3. GEA-PA: A Candidate Meta-Model
        4. GEA Object Model for Service Provisioning
        5. Creating Ontologies
        6. Goal-Oriented E-Government
        7. Goal Templates
        8. Specialization and Classification
        9. The Service Discovery Algorithm
        10. Semantic Forms
        11. Service Implementation
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    8. 24. Virtual Neighborhoods and E-Government: A Case Study Comparison
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEIGHBORHOOD THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS
      4. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
        1. The Linkage Problem: Solution
        2. The Linkage Functionality: Goals
      6. CASE STUDIES
        1. Neighborhood Oriented Service Delivery: Google Earth in Voorst
        2. Linkage Problem: Solution
          1. Motivation
          2. Problem Perception
          3. Added Value
        3. Linkage Functionality: Goal
          1. Accessibility
          2. Transparency
          3. Feedback
          4. GIS Component
        4. Neighborhood Participation: Virtuocity in Helmond
        5. Linkage Problem: Solution
          1. Motivation
          2. Problem Perception
          3. Added Value
        6. Linkage Functionality and Goal
          1. Accessibility
          2. Transparency
          3. Feedback
          4. GIS Component
        7. Neighborhood Monitoring: Crimes in the Region Haaglanden
        8. Linkage Problem: Solution
          1. Motivation
          2. Problem Perception
          3. Added Value
        9. Linkage Functionality and Goals
          1. Accessibility
          2. Transparency
          3. Feedback
          4. GIS Component
        10. Neighbors Against Airport Hindrance
        11. Linkage Problem and Solution
          1. Motivation
          2. Problem Perception
          3. Added Value
        12. Linkage functionality and Goal
          1. Accessibility
          2. Transparency
          3. Feedback
          4. GIS component
      7. CONCLUSION
        1. Linkages
        2. Key Success factors
      8. REFERENCES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors