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Politics and Social Activism: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Conflict in the Middle East, human rights violations, and religious turmoil plague the world now more than ever before. As populations seek more and more democratic methods of governance, a trend which often results in revolution, it is important for lawmakers to look toward the future when instituting or revising public policy. Politics and Social Activism: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores the concept of civil disobedience and how social and political upheaval has characterized the modern sociopolitical system. From the Arab Spring to the Egyptian uprising, this three-volume reference book includes chapters on topics including social media, democratic policies, online activism, urbanism, leadership, and socioeconomic disparity and is a timely resource for policymakers, social scientists, government officials, and students of politics and political science.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: The Internet, National Citizenship, and the “Sovereignty Paradox”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE RELATIONS BETWEEN NATIONAL CITIZENSHIP AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY
      3. WHY ASYLUM-SEEKING MIGRANTS AND ‘FORTRESS BRITAIN’?
      4. THE STUDY
      5. ASYLUM AND ‘CITIZENSHIP-SOVEREIGNTY’ CONUNDRUM
      6. THE INTERNET AND THE ‘SOVEREIGNTY PARADOX’
      7. ‘TECHNOLOGIZED’ CITIZENSHIP VS. SOVEREIGNTY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 2: Achieving Useful Government Accountability and Transparency Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY
      5. BUDGETING
      6. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
      7. SOCIAL MEDIA
      8. USABILITY
      9. ACCESSABILITY
      10. SUPPORTABILITY
      11. NAVIGATION
      12. READABILITY
      13. CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT
      14. GOVERNMENT CITIZEN RELATIONSHIPS
      15. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
      16. CHECKLIST
      17. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      18. CONCLUSION
      19. REFERENCES
      20. ADDITIONAL READING
      21. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: The Gamut of E-Government Research, Design, and Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE E-GOVERNMENT CONUNDRUM
      3. GENESIS AND MOTIVATION OF E-GOVERNMENT
      4. WHY E-GOVERNMENT DOESN’T GROW TO ITS ANTICIPATED POTENTIAL?
      5. TECHNOLOGY: NOT ONLY AN E-GOVERNMENT ENABLER
      6. E-GOVERNMENT RESEARCH
      7. SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      8. RESPONSIVE AND ADAPTIVE E-GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS
      9. EMERGING TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Democratising E-Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROPOSED ROADMAP
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: G2C Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Social Tyranny and Democratic Governance in the Information Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE PUBLIC DOMAIN
      4. 3. DEMOCRACY AND SOCIAL TYRANNY
      5. 4. THE INTERNET’S TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN AND THE SPECTER OF SOCIAL TYRANNY
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 7: ICT in Direct Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
      4. 3. THE RIGHT TO INTERNET
      5. 4. REFERENDUM AS FORM OF DIRECT DEMOCRACY
      6. 5. E-REFERENDUM
      7. 6. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN E-REFERENDA: E-VOTING
      8. 7. DANGERS AND PROBLEMS REGARDING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN E-DEMOCRACY
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Digital Media, Secrecy, and International Lawmaking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. SOLUTIONS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Sentiment Analysis, Social Media, and Public Administration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL MEDIA AS DATA SOURCES
      4. SENTIMENT ANALISYS IN SOCIAL MEDIA
      5. SENTIMENT ANALYSIS IN PRACTICE
      6. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Fashionable Functions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORY STATEMENT
      4. HYPOTHESES
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. INTERIM DISCUSSION
      8. RESULTS RELOADED
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 11: A Review of the Factors Affecting User Satisfaction in Electronic Government Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
      5. KEYWORDS ANALYSIS
      6. METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
      7. RESEARCH APPROACH
      8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      9. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
      10. CODING INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES
      11. PREDICTORS OF E-GOVERNMENT SATISFACTION AND ADOPTION: WEIGHT ANALYSIS
      12. META-ANALYSIS OF THE MOST COMMONLY OCCURRING RELATIONSHIPS
      13. CUMULATIVE DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION
      14. DISCUSSION
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. LIMITATIONS
      17. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      18. RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION
      19. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      20. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 12: Globalizing Migration Dialogue
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 13: Designing E-Government Platforms using Systems Thinking Perspectives and Performance Measurement Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXTENDED THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR E-GOVERNMENT PLATFORM DESIGN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTE
    14. Chapter 14: Ontology Development and the Role of Knowledge in E-Government Project Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSIGHTS FROM THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. ZIMBABWEAN E-GOVERNMENT CONTEXT
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: A Semantic-Enabled Framework for E-Government Systems Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRESENTATION AND SPECIFICATION OF PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      4. ENGINEERING SUPPORT TOOLS
      5. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 16: The Strategic Planning Process of Social Media Advertising in the Context of Integrated Marketing Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN STEPS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING
      5. STRATEGIC ADVERTISING PLANNING
      6. STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING
      7. SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS FOR ADVERTISING
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 17: Towards a Successful E-Government Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHOD, QUESTIONS, PROCESS, AND LIMITATION
      4. CONCEPTS DEVELOPMENT
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX A
      12. APPENDIX B
    2. Chapter 18: An Overview of E-Government Technological Divide in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. THE TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE
      6. CHALLENGES OF E-GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      7. BRIDGING THE E-GOVERNMENT TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 19: Citizen Education and Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS
      4. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON CITIZENS
      5. CONDITIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATION INTO CITIZEN EDUCATION
      6. TECHNOLOGY TOOLS FOR CITIZEN EDUCATION
      7. CURRENT PRACTICES IN TECHNOLOGY’S ROLE IN CITIZEN EDUCATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 20: The Promise of Open Source Systems/Software in Developing Requisite E-Government Solutions for the Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT EVOLUTION
      4. THE BENEFITS OF E-GOVERNMENT OPEN SOURCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 21: E-Procurement System as an E-Government Platform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF E-GOVERNMENT
      4. THE PROGRESS OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. E-GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN SOUTH KOREA
      6. THE ASSESSMENT OF E-GOVERNMENT
      7. THE BEST PRACTICES OF E-GOVERNEMTN IN SOUTH KOREA
      8. E-PROCUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR E-GOVERNMENT
      9. THE FUTURE OF E-GOVERNMENT
      10. THE FUTURE OF E-GOVERNMENT
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      15. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 22: Social Media and Free Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN OUR LIVES
      3. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN THE PUBLIC OPINION FORMATION
      4. MEDIA (BIAS) AND PUBLIC OPINION FORMATION
      5. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE: TOWARDS AN EMANCIPATE UTILIZATION OF THE SOCIAL MEDIA
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 23: Towards E-Government Information Platforms for Enterprise 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. UNLOCKING INFORMATION FOR E-GOVERNMENT AND ENTERPRISE 2.0 USING WEB 2.0 AND HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 24: IT and Collaborative Community Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONTEXT OF COLLABORATIVE COMMUNITY SERVICES
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 25: Cloud Computing and Gov 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE EMERGENCE OF CLOUD COMPUTING: BENEFITS AND RISKS
      4. 3. THE CANADIAN PUBLIC SECTOR
      5. 4. THREE MAIN LESSONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 26: ICTs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. FINDINGS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 27: DICTION as a Tool for Studying the Mass Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DICTION AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING OF MASS MEDIA AND THE PRESS
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 28: Bridging Women Rights Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. ONLINE COLLECTIVE ACTION ON WOMEN’S RIGHTS
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    13. Chapter 29: Human Enhancement Technologies and Democratic Citizenship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WORLD DISCLOSURE
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. REGISTRATION
      6. INTERMEDIATION
      7. CASTING THE BALLOT
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 30: Technology-Enhanced Pedagogical Models to Learn Critical Citizenship at a South African University
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. FINDINGS
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 31: Internet Use and Destination Preferences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 32: Smartphone-Based Digital Government Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 33: Evaluating E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING E-GOVERNMENT
      4. EVALUATING E-GOVERNMENT WEB SITES
      5. DESIGN AND EVALUATION QUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BY THE U.S.A GOVERNMENT, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 34: Googling Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IDENTIFYING E-ACTIVENESS
      4. CASE SELECTION AND DATA
      5. MEASURING E-ACTIVENESS
      6. USAID
      7. CONTROL FRACTORS: INFLUENCING E-ACTIVENESS
      8. CROSSING CAUSES AND EFFECT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
      14. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 35: Exploring Humanitarian Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ENGAGING YOUTH TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE
      4. EXPLORING HUMANITARIAN LAW
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FINAL THOUGHTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 36: Exploring the Development of M-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. M-GOVERNMENT IN ANT
      4. M-PESA IN ANT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR M-GOVERNMENT IN AFRICA
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 37: Value Assessment in E-Government and M-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 38: The Adoption of Web 2.0 by the State Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES
      5. DATA AND ANALYSIS
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. LIMITATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 39: Adoption of Social Media Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONTRIBUTION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 40: Transformation in Daytime Television Programs in Turkey since 2000
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROGRAMS CONTAINING TALKS WITH FAMOUS PEOPLE AND EXPERTS IN THEIR FIELD
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 41: Construction and Initial Validation of a Dictionary for Global Citizen Linguistic Markers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OVERVIEW OF PRESENT STUDIES
      4. 3. STUDY 1
      5. 4. STUDY 2
      6. 5. STUDY 3
      7. 6. STUDY 4
      8. 7. GENERAL DISCUSSION
      9. 8. LIMITATIONS
      10. 9. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 42: An Assessment of E-Government in a West African Country
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. THEORETICAL OVERVIEW
      6. 5. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA
      7. 6. GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
      8. 7. AN EXAMINATION OF NIGERIA’S E-GOVERNMENT RANKINGS
      9. 8. DISCUSSION
      10. 9. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 43: Is Political Participation Online Effective?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNET, DELIBERATION, AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
      4. DIGITAL DEMOCRACY: PARTICIPATION MODELS
      5. PORTAL E-DEMOCRACIA: A SUCCESSFUL CASE?
      6. METHODS
      7. FROM PROPOSAL TO DEBATE: DELIBERATIVE APPROPRIATIONS OF WIKILEGIS
      8. EFFECTIVENESS OF WIKILEGIS PARTICIPATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 44: Government Spending Transparency on the Internet
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. GOVERNMENT SPENDING TRANSPARENCY VIA OD MECHANISMS: SCOPE AND BEST PRACTICES
      4. 3. THE GREEK DIAVGEIA PROGRAM
      5. 4. BOTTOM-UP INITIATIVES IN GREECE FOR OPEN PUBLIC SPENDING DATA
      6. 5. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIAVGEIA: PROS AND CONS
      7. 6. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE BOTTOM-UP OD INITIATIVES REVIEWED: PROS AND CONS
      8. 7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 45: Exploring Consumer Empowerment in Consumption Communities Based in Social Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONSUMPTION COMMUNITIES BASED IN SOCIAL MEDIA
      4. CONSUMER EMPOWERMENT
      5. RESEARCH METHOD
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  9. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 46: E-Government Transparency and Citizen Engagement Increasing Accountability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT AND SECURITY
      5. TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 47: Towards a Citizen-Centric E-Government Service Index Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT MATURITY MODELS
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. TOWARDS A CITIZEN-CENTRIC E-GOVERNMENT SERVICE INDEX (ESI) MODEL
      6. E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE EGYPTIAN CONTEXT
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 48: Religious Social Movements and Economic Welfare in Modern Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
      4. MOVING AWAY FROM CLASSICAL SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORIES
      5. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN TURKEY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 49: Collaborative Governance Matters to E-Government Interoperability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. SAUDI E-GOVERNMENT INTEROPERABILITY POLICY INITIATIVES
      5. 4. THE SAUDI MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION’S CII E-SERVICES
      6. 5. COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE FOR SAUDI E-GOVERNMENT INTEROPERABILITY
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 50: Legal Empowerment as Social Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND LEGAL EMPOWERMENT
      4. LEGAL EMPOWERMENT IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURIAL CONTEXT: COMPARATIVE CASES OF BULWER AND NEW HANOVER IN KWAZULU-NATAL, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 51: The Relationship between Trust and Citizens' Adoption of E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT
      4. TRUST
      5. TRUST AND ADOPTION OF E-GOVERNMENT
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 52: Citizenship @ the Edge of Two Worlds
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT: A LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DISCUSSION: POSSIBILITIES AND PITFALLS OF THE CONNECTION
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FINAL REFLECTION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 53: Identity, Citizenship, and Moral Constructs from the Virtual Self
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEMOCRATIC ENGAGEMENT
      4. THE PROJECT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 54: Citizen In/Action
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FINAL REFLECTION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 55: Interactions between the Governed and Their Governments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?
      4. LEGITIMACY: INPUT AND OUTPUT
      5. THEORIES ON DELEGATION AND UNILATERAL ACTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 56: Frienemies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND: NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES AND U.S. HOMELAND SECURITY AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT POLICY
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      6. METHODS
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES AND THE U.S. GOVERNMENT WITHIN HOMELAND SECURITY AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT POLICY
      10. CURRENT CHALLENGES: INVESTIGATING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES AND THE U.S. GOVERNMENT IN HOMELAND SECURITY AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT POLICY
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 57: Engaging Social Movements in Developing Innovative Retail Business Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY AND EMPIRICAL SETTING
      5. MAIN FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 58: Citizens and E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 59: Niche and Community Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PEDAGOGY AND NICHE ONLINE COMMUNITIES
      4. INOPERATIVE COMMUNITY
      5. DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP WITHIN NEOLIBERALISM
      6. ARTISTIC INTERVENTION ONLINE
      7. REFLECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 60: Citizens' Voice and Adoption of Pakistani E-Government Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT ADOPTION
      4. ADOPTED RESEARCH MODEL
      5. EMPIRICAL STUDY AND RESULTS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 61: Trolls Just Want To Have Fun
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. GOVERNANCE, ICTs, AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      4. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. DIS(CONNECTED) CITIZENSHIP? AN EXPLORATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
      6. 5. THE INTERNET, POLITICS, AND THE PUBLIC: UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ONLINE
      7. 6. DON’T FEED THE TROLLS!: UNDERSTANDING THE PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTIONS
      8. 7. TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNET BASED ADDICTIONS: KEY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
      9. 8. TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION DISORDERS, DIGITISED ENVIRONMENTS, AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT: CYBER-BULLYING, LURKING, AND TROLLING ONLINE
      10. 9. THE CHANGING FACE OF AGGRESSIVE DISORDERS: FROM THE SCHOOL PLAYGROUND TO THE VIRTUAL SANDPIT
      11. 10. THE PHENOMENON THAT IS ELECTRONIC AGGRESSION: FROM CYBER BULLYING TO ONLINE TROLLING
      12. 11. TROLLING AS ASYCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED AGGRESSION: PROFILING TROLLS AND TROLLING BEHAVIOURS
      13. 12. THE MIRROR HAS TWO FACES: E-CONSULTATION AS TWO-WAY PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE DIGITAL AGE?
      14. 13. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND ICT POLICY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
      15. 14. THE NO.10 DOWNING STREET E-PETITIONS INITIATIVE
      16. 15. RECONFIGURING GOVERNMENT-CITIZEN RELATIONS THROUGH E-PETITIONS
      17. 16. DESIGNING PUBLIC POLICY FOR E-DEMOCRACY IN THE UK
      18. 17. CONCLUSION
      19. REFERENCES
      20. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      21. ENDNOTES
    17. Chapter 62: Organizational Citizenship Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES FACING THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. THEORETICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      9. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 63: The Impact of Perceived Organizational Politics on Work Attitudes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
  10. Section 5: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 64: Shaping Digital Democracy in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 65: Trends in e-Strategic Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. E-STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF GREECE
      4. 3. EXPLORING VARIOUS E-STRATEGIES
      5. 4. VISUALIZING E-STRATEGIC TRANSFORMATION
      6. 5. RESULTS AND FUTURE THOUGHTS
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 66: Communicative Planning Theory Following Deliberative Democracy Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE THREE GENERATIONS OF DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY THEORY
      4. FROM CRITIQUE OF COMMUNICATIVE PLANNING THEORY TO CRITICAL PRAGMATISM
      5. TRADING ZONE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    4. Chapter 67: What is Needed to Advance Transformational E-Government and Why
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 68: Towards an Interactive E-Government System in Sub-Saharan Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW
      4. PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF E-GOVERNMENT IN AFRICA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 69: Professional Development Needs and Resources for Government Document Librarians
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NEEDS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 70: Quality Approaches for Performance Measurement in Jordanian E-Government Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. QUALITY APPROACHES
      5. RESEARCH APPROACH
      6. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 71: Feral Government?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WORKFLOW TECHNOLOGIES AS A METAPHOR
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 72: Big Data for Digital Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIG DATA: FEATURES AND TYPOLOGY
      4. OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, AND STRATEGIES FOR BIG DATA
      5. AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE OF BIG DATA: TAIWAN’S E-HOUSEKEEPER PROGRAM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 73: What Does E- add to Democracy?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WHAT IS NEW AND WHAT IS NOT?
      5. HOW HAS THE TRANSFORMATION HIT THE POLITICAL REALM?
      6. WHERE LIES THE REVOLUTIONARY THRUST?
      7. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 74: Are Greek High School Students Environmental Citizens?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 75: E-Governance in Africa and the Challenges Confronting Urban E-Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-GOVERNANCE IN AFRICA
      4. LUSOPHONE AFRICAN COUNTRIES: E-GOVERNANCE AND URBAN E-PLANNING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 76: A Democratic Approach to Strategic Management in Sport Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USING PROFESSIONAL SPORT TO HELP UNDERSTAND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      4. A SPORTS TEAM ANALOGY USEFUL FOR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      5. RANGE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
      6. SPORT ORGANIZATION SIZE, AMATEUR, PROFESSIONAL, AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      7. GENERAL HISTORY OF SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT
      8. ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY REFLECTING SOCIETAL (USA)/POLITICAL DEMOCRACY
      9. EFFECT OF DIVERSITY
      10. COMMITMENT ACROSS LEVELS AND EMPLOYEE INFLUENCED DECISION MAKING
      11. SPORTING COMMUNITY INPUT AND NEW IDEAS
      12. CULTURE OF MUTUAL SHARING TOWARD SUCCESS
      13. EMPLOYEE INPUT AND TRANSPARENCY OF MANAGEMENT’S FINAL DECISION
      14. ENGAGING AND MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES THROUGH SHARED MISSION DEVELOPMENT
      15. MEMBER VOTES
      16. INPUT FROM THE SPORTING COMMUNITY
      17. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
      18. THREAT OF COMMERCIALISM
      19. CHALLENGES TO AND DIFFICULTIES IMPLEMENTING DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT
      20. MORALITY OF THE ORGANIZATION
      21. CONCLUSION
      22. REFERENCES
      23. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      24. APPENDIX
    14. Chapter 77: The Opportunities and Challenges of using Email for Political Communication in Authoritarian States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICTS AS CONVIVIAL TOOLS
      4. USE OF ICTS IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION
      5. THE MMPZ CASE
      6. METHODS AND APPROACH
      7. LESSONS FROM ONLINE MARKETING
      8. FRAMEWORK FOR USING EMAIL FOR POLITICAL MOBILISATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 78: Government 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN INNOVATION FOR MUNICIPALITIES
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 79: Politicking the Information Technology Strategy in Organisations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RESEARCH APPROACH
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. DATA ANALYSIS
      6. 5. FINDINGS
      7. 6. INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS
      8. 7. THE IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL POLITICS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IT STRATEGY
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 80: Realigning Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSIGHTS FROM LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 81: Systemic Enterprise Architecture as Future
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FUTURE OF GOVERNMENT
      4. CONNECTED GOVERNMENT: THE GENESIS
      5. THE EMERGING COMPLEXITY PARADIGM
      6. NETWORKED GOVERNANCE AND COMPLEXITY LEADERSHIP
      7. GOVERNMENTS AS SYSTEMS
      8. A PRIMER TO ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      9. FRONTIERS OF GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      10. STRUCTURING THE CONNECTED GOVERNMENT
      11. THE BUSINESS OF GOVERNMENT
      12. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN GOVERNMENT
      13. THE CONNECTED PERSPECTIVE
      14. ACTUALIZING THE CONNECTED GOVERNMENT
      15. THE HEALTHCARE CONUNDRUM
      16. CHRONIC DISEASES: THE SCALE OF THE PROBLEM
      17. STRATEGIC (SYSTEMS) THINKING
      18. A COMPLEX SYSTEM
      19. STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS
      20. POWER OF STRATEGIC (SYSTEMS) THINKING
      21. ACTING ON THE STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS
      22. CONNECTING THE DOTS
      23. ENABLERS, OBSTACLES, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      24. CONCLUSION
      25. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      26. REFERENCES
      27. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. Chapter 82: Foresights and Practice in Technology Development for E-Government Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. E-GOVERNMENT CONCEPTUALIZATION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGY NUANCES
      5. ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY DESIGNS
      6. FUTURE PROSPECTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 83: To Participation and Beyond?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO E-DEMOCRACY IN BRISTOL, UK
      4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-DEMOCRACY IN BRISTOL
      5. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION
      6. DISCUSSION: TOWARDS PHASE FOUR?
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 84: Critical Perspectives of E-Government in Developing World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF THE INFORMATION AGE AND E-GOVERNMENT
      4. ICT4D (INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT)
      5. JORDAN’S E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. DESIGN-REALITY GAP
      8. ITPOSMO MODEL
      9. ANALYTICAL SUMMARY
      10. ITPOSMO ANALYSIS OF THE JORDANIAN CASE STUDY
      11. DISCUSSING THE DESIGN-REALITY GAP SCORE OF DRIVERS AND VEHICLES LICENSING (DVL) IMPLEMENTATION IN JORDAN
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 85: Wired for Change?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GOVERNANCE, GOVERNMENT AND ICTS: A CONCEPTUAL EXPLORATION
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. URBAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM AND ICTS: THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE
      6. PROPERTY TAX AND E-GOVERNMENT IN INDIA: THE CASE OF KARNATAKA STATE
      7. COMPUTERISING PROPERTY TAX: THE NIRMALA NAGARA PROJECT
      8. CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION
      9. RUBBER HITS ROAD: THE PROPERTY TAX INFORMATION SYSTEM IN FIGURES
      10. DISCUSSION: AN OVERVIEW OF KEY RESULTS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 86: Impact and Potential of Emerging Technologies for Fostering Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND DEMOCRACY
      4. LEADERSHIP, CULTURE, AND TECHNOLOGY
      5. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, BELIEF, PRESS AND TECHNOLOGY
      6. RULE OF LAW AND TECHNOLOGY
      7. HUMAN RIGHTS AND TECHNOLOGY
      8. INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY AND TECHNOLOGY
      9. TECHNOLOGY AND DEMOCRACY: IMPLICATIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 87: Constructing Multicultural Society on Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. KEEPING A MINORITY CULTURE WITHIN A WEB SITE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 88: Consulting the British Public in the Digital Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIS(CONNECTED) CITIZENSHIP? AN EXPLORATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
      4. UNDERSTANDING ONLINE AND OFFLINE PARTICIPATION: THE PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTIONS
      5. TECHNOLOGY- AND INTERNET-BASED ADDICTIONS: KEY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
      6. TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION, DIGITIZED ENVIRONMENTS, AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT: DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
      7. GOVERNANCE, ICTs AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      9. E-CONSULTATION: TWO-WAY GOVERNANCE IN THE DIGITAL AGE?
      10. UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ONLINE
      11. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND ICT POLICY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
      12. THE NO.10 DOWNING STREET e-PETITIONS INITIATIVE
      13. RECONFIGURING GOVERNMENT-CITIZEN RELATIONS THROUGH e-PETITIONS
      14. DESIGNING PUBLIC POLICY FOR e-DEMOCRACY IN THE UK
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      19. ENDNOTES