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Political Campaigning in the Information Age

Book Description

Technology and the Internet especially have brought on major changes to politics and are playing an increasingly important role in political campaigns, communications, and messaging. Political Campaigning in the Information Age increases our understanding of aspects and methods for political campaigning, messaging, and communications in the information age. Each chapter analyzes political campaigning, its methods, the effectiveness of these methods, and tools for analyzing these methods. This book will aid political operatives in increasing the effectiveness of political campaigns and communications and will be of use to researchers, political campaign staff, politicians and their staff, political and public policy analysts, political scientists, engineers, computer scientists, journalists, academicians, students, and professionals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1: Relationship between Social Media and Political Parties
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. GLOBALIZATION, POLITICS AND INTERNET
    4. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL PARTIES
    5. INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE CAPACITY IN TURKEY
    6. SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN TURKEY
    7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  8. Chapter 2: Social Media in Political Public Relations
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. WEB, POLITICS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS: LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. WEB SOCIAL MEDIA, PSD AND PS IN THE 2009 PARLIAMENTARY CAMPAIGN
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  9. Chapter 3: Amplification and Virtual Back-Patting
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SOCIAL MEDIA, INDIVIDUALIZATION AND WEB-CAMPAIGNING
    4. THE SETTING AND CASE
    5. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    6. HOW NINA USED SOCIAL MEDIA AND MADE IT RELEVANT
    7. AMPLIFICATION AND VIRTUAL BACK PATTING
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 4: A Europe Wide Web?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION: POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE DIGITAL AGE
    3. ONLINE CAMPAIGNING IN THE 2009 EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ELECTION
    4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY
    5. FINDINGS
    6. DISCUSSION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. Key Terms and Definitions
    10. ENDNOTES
    11. APPENDIX: META-ANALYSIS OF SEVEN CODING FRAMES
  11. Chapter 5: New Media in the Process of Shaping Local Democracy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. 1. MARKETING, POLITICS AND MEDIA
    4. 2. LOCAL ELECTIONS IN POLAND
    5. 3. ICT, LOCAL POLITICS AND LOCAL DEMOCRACY IN POLAND: CHALLENGES AND THREATS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  12. Chapter 6: Online Political Marketing
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. Conceptual Framework: Research Hypotheses
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. RESULTS
    6. DISCUSSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Chapter 7: Microblogging and the News
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  14. Chapter 8: Reframing Audience
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE PRESIDENT’S ANNUAL MESSAGE TO CONGRESS
    4. AUDIENCE
    5. DATA
    6. CONVENTIONS IN COMMUNICATING VIA TWITTER
    7. CO-MOTION
    8. FOCUS: OBAMA, POSITIVE
    9. FOCUS: OBAMA, NEGATIVE
    10. FOCUS: REPUBLICANS, NEGATIVE
    11. FOCUS
    12. REACH
    13. CO-MOTION AND RECONSTRUCTING THE PUBLIC DOMAIN
    14. REFERENCES
    15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Chapter 9: Sources and Formats of Campaign Information on YouTube
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. RESEARCH QUESTION
    5. METHODOLOGY
    6. RESULTS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Chapter 10: Do Web Campaigns by Party Leaders Enhance the Images of Party Leaders Held by Voters?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. THE FINNISH CASE
    5. EXPERIMENT 1: WEBSITES
    6. EXPERIMENT 2: BLOGS
    7. COMPARING EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO WEBSITES AND BLOGS
    8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    9. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. ENDNOTES
    14. APPENDIX
  17. Chapter 11: Using Presidential Popularity for Understanding the Relationship between President Bush and Congressional Republicans' Online Campaigning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. LIMITATIONS OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH
    5. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
    6. HYPOTHESES
    7. RESULTS
    8. DISCUSSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Chapter 12: A Diachronic Analysis of Portuguese Digital Campaigning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHODOLOGY
    4. ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNING IN PORTUGAL
    5. 2000-2005: THE INTERNET AS A MIRROR OF THE TRADITIONAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN
    6. EARLY STAGE
    7. KICK START
    8. 2009-2011: THE INTERNET LANGUAGE, SOCIAL NETWORKING AND INTERACTIVITY
    9. THE LEFT BLOCK: A BREATH OF FRESH AIR
    10. PCP: THE PREFERENCE FOR THE COALITION’S WEBSITE
    11. PS: ONLINE REVOLUTION WITH “SOCRATES 2009”
    12. TRUTH POLITICS IN THE SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC WEB
    13. THE “POPULAR” USE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS
    14. CONCLUSION: WHERE DID IT ALL GO?
    15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    16. REFERENCES
    17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Chapter 13: The New Interdisciplinary Fields of Political Engineering and Computational Politics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. POLITICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL POLITICS
    4. SCOPE OF POLITICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL POLITICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    5. EXAMPLES OF POLITICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL POLITICS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Chapter 14: The New Interdisciplinary Fields of Public Policy Engineering and Computational Public Policy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PUBLIC POLICY ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL PUBLIC POLICY
    4. SCOPE OF PUBLIC POLICY ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    5. EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC POLICY ENGINEERING AND COMPUTATIONAL PUBLIC POLICY
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Chapter 15: Type-One Fuzzy Logic for Quantitatively Defining Imprecise Linguistic Terms in Politics and Public Policy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. TYPES OF IMPRECISION AND UNCERTAINTY
    4. 3. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH AT THE SADDLEBACK CIVIL FORUM ON THE PRESIDENCY
    5. 4. TRANSCRIPTS ON QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A CRISP SET AT THE SADDLEBACK CIVIL FORUM ON THE PRESIDENCY
    6. 5. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A CRISP SET
    7. 6. MULTIPLE DETERMINANTS OF FINANCIAL WELL-BEING
    8. 7. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A FUZZY SET
    9. 8. QUALITATIVE DEFINITIONS, CRISP QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS, AND FUZZY QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS OF IMPRECISE WORDS
    10. 9. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING MIDDLE CLASS WITH A FUZZY SET
    11. 10. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING POOR WITH A FUZZY SET
    12. 11. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING INFLATION LEVELS WITH FUZZY SETS
    13. 12. LINGUISTIC HEDGES
    14. 13. CONCLUSION
    15. REFERENCES
    16. ADDITIONAL READING
    17. Key Terms and Definitions
  22. Chapter 16: Interval Type-Two Fuzzy Logic for Quantitatively Defining Imprecise Linguistic Terms in Politics and Public Policy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
    4. 3. Qualitative Definitions, Crisp Quantitative Definitions, Type-One Fuzzy Quantitative Definitions, and Interval Type-Two Fuzzy Quantitative Definitions of Imprecise Words
    5. 4. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING MIDDLE CLASS WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
    6. 5. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING POOR WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
    7. 6. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  23. Chapter 17: Using Graph Theory Software for Political Discourse Analysis
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. ELEMENTS OF GRAPH THEORY IN THE CONTEXT OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE
    4. 3. THE MINIMUM SPANNING TREE
    5. 4. SHORTEST PATH
    6. 5. USING POLITICAL ANALYST FOR THE AXIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL DISCOURSE
    7. 6. A CASE STUDY: THE NATIONAL LIBERAL PARTY PROGRAM ANALYSIS USING POLITICAL ANALYST
    8. 7. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. ENDNOTES
  24. Chapter 18: Online Election Campaigning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. POLITICAL COMMUNICATION AND ELECTIONS ONLINE
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. ONLINE CAMPAIGNING IN FRANCE 2012: UNDERSTANDING THE SUPPLY SIDE
    6. ONLINE INFORMATION SEEKING AND VOTER DECISION MAKING: UNDERSTANDING DEMAND
    7. SUPPLY VS. DEMAND: UNDERSTANDING CAMPAIGN ENVIRONMENTS
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. ENDNOTES
    12. APPENDIX
  25. Chapter 19: Hungarian MPs' Response Propensity to Emails
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE NEW ICTs AND THE INTERACTION
    4. HYPOTHESIS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    5. RESEARCH METHODS
    6. RESULTS
    7. DISCUSSION
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. ENDNOTES
  26. Chapter 20: Mapping Research Methodology in Online Political Communication
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ON-LINE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION RESEARCH: PARAMETERS OF CONCERN
    4. SHIFTING PARADIGMS: A DECADE OF RESEARCH
    5. THE CONTROL GROUP
    6. A QUANTUM DEVELOPMENT
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  27. Compilation of References
  28. About the Contributors